Designing, engineering, and protecting biodiversity

By: James V. Kohl | Published on: November 3, 2015

Engineering Life Flipped Course

How did life evolve? How can we understand the principles of biological systems to create new proteins, new chemicals, biological structures, cells and tissues?

The course title led me to think they might include the required information on energy-dependent base pair flipping that links atoms to ecosystems.
See, for example: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
When I saw that the first presentations of the series featured Jack Szostak, I realized that no facts about biologically-based cause and effect would be presented in any course about engineering life via evolution. When you see that a course attempts to explain how life evolved, you should stop to ask someone if any experimental evidence supports the claim that life did evolve.
You will find what serious scientists already know.
See: Replace the Modern Synthesis (Neo-Darwinism): An Interview With Denis Noble

[W]hat Haldane, Fisher, Sewell Wright, Hardy, Weinberg et al. did was invent…. Evolution was defined as “changes in gene frequencies in natural populations.” The accumulation of genetic mutations was touted to be enough to change one species to another….  Assumptions, made but not verified, were taught as fact.

If you want to learn more about the ridiculous theory the neo-Darwinists invented based on de Vries turn of the 20th century definition of “mutation,” watch the course presentations in Engineering Life Flipped Course. If you want to learn how nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation links Schrodinger’s claims in “What is Life?” to what is know by serious scientists about its origins and about nutrient-dependent biodiversity that is controlled by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera, search your favorite source for accurate information.
The term “RNA mediated” will provide  you with more information on biologically-based cause and effect than you will ever find in courses designed to teach you about how life evolved.
See also: Origin of Life: First Cells May Have Been Glued Together


Nobel laureate Jack Szostak and his team at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, US, found that peptides just seven amino acids long or fewer can localise RNA to a basic cell membrane. ‘This mechanism is really quite simple and has been used in other fields to form RNA complexes with a variety of materials,’ says Neha Kamat, the first author of the paper. ‘The simplicity of our system is what makes this mode of RNA-membrane association seem plausible on a primitive Earth.’

My comment: Simplicity and plausibility are “weasel words” used to make it appear that theorists understand how to link biologically-based cause and effect. For comparison, Sutherland’s group linked the speed of light on contact with water to the de novo creation of nucleic acids, which also linked Schrodinger’s claim about the anti-entropic effects of the sun’s biological energy to cell type differentiation in all living genera via nutrient-dependent control of virus-driven genomic entropy.
See: Thermodynamic insights into 2-thiouridine-enhanced RNA hybridization

RNA plays an essential and diverse role in living systems, acting as genetic information carrier, catalyst and regulator (14). Functional RNAs adopt many well-defined 3D structures resulting from specific base–base interactions including normal Watson–Crick base pairs and a variety of other associations (5). Understanding the structure and thermodynamics of base–base interactions provides a foundation for elucidating RNA structure/function relationships, engineering novel applications such as RNA-based therapeutics and addressing questions related to the origins of life (6).

My comment: The fact that the Watson–Crick base pairs are not stable until nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions enable the histone-mediated effect that links nutrients to supercoiled DNA, which protects organized genomes from virus-driven genomic entropy, links the de novo creation of nucleic acids to the creation of all biodiversity.

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