The virome, microbiome, replisome and supercoiled DNA
This architecture could also potentially play an important role in developmental biology by providing a pathway for treating the two daughter strands differently. Many modifications to DNA, including how it is packaged with other proteins, control which of the many genes in the sequence are eventually expressed in cells. An asymmetric replisome may result in asymmetric treatment of the two daughter strands during cell division—an essential step for making different tissues within a multicellular organism.
As the paper concludes, “Clearly, further studies will be required to understand the functional implications of the unexpected replisome architecture reported here.”
My comment: This replisome architecture would have been expected by anyone who understands what is currently known about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. For example, this parody puts nutrient-dependent base pair changes and RNA-mediated gene duplication into the context of the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in histones that protect organized genomes from virus-driven genomic entropy.
The findings also clearly linked the skin virome to the skin microbiome: Most of the detected viral DNA appeared to belong to phage viruses, which infect and often take up long-term residence within bacteria. And when Grice and colleagues sequenced skin bacterial DNA from the same 16 subjects, they found that it often contained tell-tale marks—called CRISPR spacers—of prior invasion by the same phage viruses.
My comment: Finding viruses and retroviruses in the bacteria of the largest organ of the human body links them from nutrient-dependent metabolic networks to genetic networks via the effects of viruses in gut bacteria on RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera via the controlled physiology of reproduction.
Pineapple genome offers insight into photosynthesis in drought-tolerant plants
Protecting plants from stealthy diseases
Evolution on the inside track: Study shows how viruses in gut bacteria change over time
Genetic variation in human gut viruses could be raw material for inner evolution
Study: Vitamin B3 may help prevent certain skin cancers
Eventually, someone will get the Nobel Prize that Rosalind Franklin probably would have received had she lived to link the tobacco mosaic virus and poliovirus from pathology in plants to all pathology in mammals via an atoms to ecosystems model of epigenetically-effected non-static DNA structure and function.
The works reported in the links above inadvertently link viruses in gut microbes from metabolic networks to genetic networks that link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to human via the physiology of reproduction, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in histones to supercoiled DNA and protection from virus-driven DNA damage.
The link from viruses in gut microbes to viruses in skin cells and pathology also may have secured the US Presidency for a candidate who is wiling to tout his creationist beliefs. I suspect that others, will now begin to follow Ben Carson’s lead even though the others know nothing about cell type differentiation compared to Ben Carson.