Increased soil pH and nutrient availability
The study appears in Nature Communications. It was reported as: People enhanced the environment, not degraded it, over past 13,000 years
1) Fishing of intertidal shellfish intensified in the area over the past 6,000 years, resulting in the accumulation of deep shell middens, in some cases more than five metres deep and covering thousands of square metres of forest area. The long-term practice of harvesting shellfish and depositing remnants inland has contributed significant marine-derived nutrients to the soil as shells break down slowly, releasing calcium over time.
2) The work found that this disposal and stockpiling of shells, as well as the people’s use of fire, altered the forest through increased soil pH and important nutrients, and also improved soil drainage.
My comment: The alterations in soil pH link virus-driven energy theft from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to quorum sensing and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria. The physiology of reproduction links the bull sperm microRNAome and microRNAs in breast milk that protect us from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika virus-damaged brain cells.
See for comparison: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants published in “Nature” on 10 January 2013
Three years later, the Nature Publications Group may want you to believe that, like all humans, they have helped every other living thing on Earth to ecologically adapt. But, that is the agenda of all theorists. See for comparison:
What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy
See also: Early-life nutrition modulates the epigenetic state of specific rDNA genetic variants in mice
and Viruses are a dominant driver of protein adaptation in mammals
Only the claims about viruses linked to adaptations are clearly false.
See for comparison: Epigenetics and Genetics of Viral Latency
… viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…
Viral latency is nutrient-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. I species from microbes to humans it links quorum sensing in bacteria from ecological variation to ecological adaptations via the energy-dependent creation of the innate immune system and supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy.
See also: Communication shapes sensory response in multicellular networks
In light of these developments, our results suggest that cell density, via gap junctional communication and nonlinear signaling dynamics, can impact cellular function, similar to so-called dynamical quorum sensing (46–48).
46. Mehta P, Gregor T (2010) Approaching the molecular origins of collective dynamics in
oscillating cell populations. Curr Opin Genet Dev 20(6):574–580.
47. De Monte S, d’Ovidio F, Danø S, Sørensen PG (2007) Dynamical quorum sensing:
Population density encoded in cellular dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(47):
48. Taylor AF, Tinsley MR, Wang F, Huang Z, Showalter K (2009) Dynamical quorum
sensing and synchronization in large populations of chemical oscillators. Science
Ecosystems with a history of extensive human use through commercial logging, development or other forms of contemporary resource extraction are often considered degraded and disturbed. Here we offer alternative consequences of extensive and long-term human management in coastal areas. Pockets of enhanced forest productivity are associated with increased phosphorous availability resulting from higher soil pH from the slow leaching of calcium from shell middens along with the nutrient amendments of past fires. Taken together, this leads to higher forest productivity than might otherwise be predicted for coastal soils with high nitrogen and low availability of other important nutrients such as calcium46. With a deep time perspective from 13,000 years of repeated occupation of the study area, it is clear that coastal First Nations people have developed practices that enhanced nutrient-limited ecosystems, making the environment that supported them even more productive. Middens containing large amounts of bivalves and univalves47 are common regionally48 and worldwide49, making the patterns we report generalizable to other coastal landscapes.
I reiterate, this was reported as:
Fishing of intertidal shellfish intensified in the area over the past 6,000 years, resulting in the accumulation of deep shell middens, in some cases more than five metres deep and covering thousands of square metres of forest area. The long-term practice of harvesting shellfish and depositing remnants inland has contributed significant marine-derived nutrients to the soil as shells break down slowly, releasing calcium over time.
A major theme in evolutionary biology is the co-adaptation of interacting organisms. One well-known example of reciprocal adaptation is the co-evolutionary arms race between plants and their insect herbivores, as proposed in the seminal 1964 paper of Ehrlich and Raven1.
This links hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA-base pairs in solution from energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, which link the de novo creation of the innate immune system from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the metabolic networks and genetic networks that link ecological variation to ecological adaptations and all biodiversity in all invertebrates and invertebrates via quorum sensing in marine microbes.
The genome of each mutualistic ant was evolving at a faster rate than that of the most closely related generalist, Rubin and Moreau report today in Nature Communications. Moreover, they discovered that changes were occurring in the same genes in all three mutualistic ant species compared with their nonmutualistic counterparts. Those genes included ones that shape behavior and affect the brain—logical, because partnerships depend on specific nesting, eating, and defensive behaviors, Moreau says. “The two partners must constantly dance together.” And because other pressures—such as disease or drought—could easily derail that dance, each partner must evolve quickly to make up for any missed steps. “I predict we will see it in lots of obligate systems,” Moreau says.
Through stimulating interactions at the interface of virology and immunology, this conference will explore when and how a virus induces disease, thus identifying new avenues for treatment and prevention.