Autophagy: from pre-mRNAs to microRNAs, enhancers, QTLs et al.
Nothing known to serious scientists links anything except energy-dependent changes in chirality to autophagy and biodiversity via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera. That fact forces pseudoscientists to invent new terms to confuse the biologically uninformed masses who were taught to believe in the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense of mutation-driven evolution.
Autophagy in the liver: functions in health and disease
See the section: Regulation of autophagy by amino acids
See for comparison: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Excerpt from our section on molecular epigenetics.
Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
The prevention of unnecessary suffering and death could be as simple as restoring the balance of amino acids and sugar to prevent all pathology via RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
That’s not going to happen without some discussion of what is known to serious scientists about the links from angstroms to ecosystems. All of them are energy-dependent. So, “go ahead, make my day!”
Ask your professors where the energy came from and how it is linked to the changes in pH that predict when difference in healthy longevity become differences in the types of pathology via links from autophagy to supercoiled DNA or to negative supercoiling.
See also: Processing and transcriptome expansion at the mRNA 3′ end in health and disease: finding the right end
This review suggests the term “pre-mRNA” changed to “microRNA” as serious scientists learned more about how energy-dependent cell type differentiation was biophysically constrained.
We illustrate the medical importance by presenting examples that are associated with perturbations of this process and indicate resulting implications for molecular diagnostics as well as potentially arising novel therapeutic strategies.
This was ~20 years after we linked alternative splicings of pre-mRNA to all cell type diversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in yeasts at the advent of energy-dependent sexual reproduction.
See also: Implications of polyadenylation in health and disease
This review addresses the key steps of polyadenylation and alternative polyadenylation in different cellular conditions and diseases focusing on the molecular effectors that ensure a faultless pre-mRNA 3′ end formation.
Watch as researchers continue to invent new names for the molecular effectors in attempts to obfuscated the facts about biophysically-contrained protein folding chemistry that have been known to all serious scientists since Schrodinger (1944) linked the anti-entropic energy of the sun to all biodiversity.
Epigenetic (re)programming of caste-specific behavior in the ant Camponotus floridanus
Eusocial insects organize themselves into behavioral castes whose regulation has been proposed to involve epigenetic processes…
Research article summary excerpt:
…behavioral plasticity can be manipulated in the ant C. floridanus by pharmacological and genetic tools that target chromatin regulatory enzymes to stimulate, inhibit, and reprogram behavior. These findings reveal the epigenome as a likely substrate underlying caste-based division of labor in eusocial insects.
…our ability to alter a canonical altruistic behavior in a truly social organism by experimental perturbation of a single gene suggests that the application of increasingly versatile reverse genetic approaches in eusocial insects will allow us to expose the general organizational principles underlying complex social systems (10).
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
All general organizational principles underlying complex social systems are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the regulation of gene expression that enables the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all morphological and behavioral phenotypes.
‘Mysterious’ non-protein-coding RNAs play important roles in gene expression
Berger and Daniel Bose, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in her lab, study the regulation of gene expression from enhancers, non-coding regions of the genome more distant from protein-coding regions.
The only mystery should focus on why they thought they could continue to suppress the facts by referring to natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality in terms like “enhancers.” Since 2013, everything known to serious scientists about nutrient-dependent microRNAs has been linked to all healthy longevity and virus-driven energy theft has been linked to to all pathology. Serious scientists are not using the term “enhancer.” See for example any of the 56,000 published works that use the term “MicroRNA”
See: Enhancer RNAs alter gene expression: New class of molecules may be key emerging ‘enhancer therapy’
Enhancers are sequences in the genome that act to boost or “enhance” the activity or expression of nearby genes. They “often behave in a cell-specific manner and play an important role in establishing a cell’s identity and functional potential,” said Christopher Glass, MD, PhD, a professor in the department of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine at UC San Diego and principal investigator of one of the papers.
Although enhancers have been recognized for more than 25 years, scientists have labored to fully flesh out the breadth and complexity of what enhancers do and how they do it. In 2010, it was discovered that enhancers directed expression of RNA on a broad scale in neurons and macrophages, a type of immune system cell. Dubbed eRNAs…
SnapShot: Non-coding RNAs and Metabolism
In recent years, understanding the crucial role played by cellular homeostasis in disease initiation and progression became the focus of scientists and clinicians. This SnapShot sketches the involvement of both short microRNAs and long ncRNAs in the major metabolic pathways altered in diseases.
Functional Importance of eRNAs for Estrogen-dependent Transcriptional Activation Events
Who do they think does not know that the functional importance of microRNAs and the functional difference of eRNAs is the same. eRNAs are the term theorists use for microRNAs.
Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.
See also: SPECIAL ISSUE—THE ZIKA VIRUS GLOBAL PANDEMIC: THE LATEST EMERGING INFECTION
Placental Pathology of Zika Virus: Viral Infection of the Placenta Induces Villous Stromal Macrophage (Hofbauer Cell) Proliferation and Hyperplasia
It is still not well understood what role(s) the Hofbauer cell has in facilitating or inhibiting transplacental transmission of infectious agents such as the Zika virus. However, based on the demonstration in this communication of proliferation and prominent hyperplasia of Hofbauer cells in the placenta from a microcephalic fetus infected early in gestation, the identification of residual Zika virus in villous stromal cells, using an RNA probe, and the previously published results of in vitro infection and replication of Zika virus in human Hofbauer cells, it appears highly probable that the Hofbauer cell has an important, or even primary, role in those cases where transplacental transmission of the Zika virus does occur. The unexpected absence in placental tissues of any necrosis or leukocytic response by the mother or fetus to transplacental Zika virus infection is also interesting and of unknown significance.
The absence of a response in the organized genomes of the host clearly indicates ecological adaptation to the virus has already occurred and the supercoiled DNA of the host helps to protect a host from DNA damage. The infants are comparatively unprotected. If they survive to reproduce, and their bones turn up in what a future paleontologist thinks is a fossil record that spans hundreds of thousands of years, the paleontologist would almost undoubtedly claim to have found a new species of non-human primate.
For comparison, all serious scientists known that energy-dependent autophagy is the link to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genome from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.