Light-activated feedback loops vs self-organization of ecosystems (2)

By: James V. Kohl | Published on: April 20, 2017

See: Light-activated feedback loops vs self-organization of ecosystems
MicroRNAs Establish Uniform Traits during the Architecture of Vertebrate Embryos

We discovered a previously unrecognized role for specific vertebrate miRNAs to protect tissue development against phenotypic variability. This discovery marks an important advance in our comprehension of how miRNAs function in the development of higher organisms.

Reported as: 85698The role of tiny RNA in genetic diversity Posted to the Human Ethology Yahoo Group by the moderator of the group, Jay R. Feierman — with my emphasis (below)

The role of tiny RNA in genetic diversity
March 28, 2017 in Biology / Cell & Microbiology 

All species, from zebrafish to humans, possess a genetically diverse collection of traits that allow them to adapt to changing environments. Yet scientists do not fully understand how organisms reach a state of optimal diversity-just enough variability to respond to environmental risks but not too much to function properly.

To explore the matter, a team of Yale researchers led by vascular biologist Stefania Nicoli studied zebrafish embryos, comparing traits of normal zebrafish to ones lacking specific RNA molecules. They found that the genetically modified embryos had greater range of traits or more diversity. For example, fish lacking a particular microRNA generate a population of sibling embryos with excessive blood vessel growth or a delay in growth. Such increased diversity made the mutant zebrafish more sensitive to environmental changes, such as oxygen deprivation, high-temperature stress, and toxic chemical exposure.

This is the first time researchers found that genetic diversity in a vertebrate animal is regulated by microRNA during very early development. Their diversity is inherited rather than acquired, Nicoli said. This finding, she noted, advances understanding of microRNA’s role in development, and may in the future provide a tool to measure individual susceptibility to risk factors and diseases.

Re: “…scientists do not fully understand how organisms reach a state of optimal diversity…”
All serious scientists understand how natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links food odors and pheromones from feedback loops to the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. The role of microRNAs starts with their energy-dependent de novo creation via the anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun.
Re: This is the first time researchers found that genetic diversity in a vertebrate animal is regulated by microRNA during very early development.
See for comparison: microRNA Accessed 4/20/17 at 9:09 AM ET Items: 1 to 20 of 59916
Within a year after the tipping point of 50,000 published works that mention microRNA was reached, serious scientists discovered that differences in the energy of photons link energy-dependent changes in base pairs from single nucleotide polymorphisms to amino acid substitutions and all healthy longevity in all living genera.
For a historical perspective, see: The pattern of hMENA isoforms is regulated by TGF-beta1 in pancreatic cancer and may predict patient outcome (2016)

…we have shown that alternative splicing generates multiple hMENA protein isoforms with hMENA11a and hMENAΔv6 associated with epithelial or mesenchymal-like cells14 respectively, and opposite roles in cell proliferation16,17 and invasion.14

See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

A potential ramification of epigenetic imprinting and alternative splicing may be occurring in Xq28, a chromosomal region implicated in homosexual orientation…

In the discussion section of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review, we also wrote:

Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).

Pseudoscientists have continued to ignore many aspects of energy-dependent epigenetic modifications in identical loci, and one o them has removed energy from her claims about dynamic reciprocity.
See: Location, Location, Location:  Since first proposing that a cell’s function and biology depend on its surroundings, Mina Bissell continues to probe the role of the extracellular matrix (with my emphasis)

… in 1974, now in her own laboratory at the LBNL, Bissell, along with James Bassham and colleagues, designed a steady-state machine to measure the kinetics of metabolism and other processes in cultured cells by keeping them in precise growing conditions, including constant temperature and pH, and in isolation from the outside environment. Using the device, Bissell’s lab again confirmed that transformed cells rely more heavily on aerobic glycolysis for energy, but that the switch to this energy pathway did not result from the impairment of the hydrogen-transfer pathway. The results, says Bissell, went against the other half of Warburg’s hypothesis: that the reason for the increased glycolysis is impaired hydrogen transfer.

In her model of dynamic reciprocity, proposed that the extracellular matrix directly signals to the nucleus and chromatin biochemically and mechanically to regulate gene expression

All signaling is energy-dependent and biophysically contrained by hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. For contrast to the claims made by biologically uninformed theorists, see: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

It appears that GnRH neurons integrate a variety of information about the internal state of the animal and its external environment. At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. Among these are areas involved in odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, arousal, reward, and other functions. This suggests that GnRH neurons are poised to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior in accordance with the overall state of the animal.

The overall state of all animals links the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA mediated protein folding to survival of the species in all living genera. Simply put, all species must find food and reproduce in accord with Darwin’s “conditions of life.”

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