Autophagy and health or virus-driven pathology
HMGB1 is involved in major DNA repair pathways and regulates cell death and survival . Xiao and coworkers have reported that miR-142-3p directly targets HMGB1 to inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis , but the underlying mechanisms have not been elaborated. Our findings suggest that the in vitro anti-NSCLC properties of miR-142-3p reported by Xiao et al. could be at least partially mediated by downregulation of HMGB1-mediated autophagy. Findings from Xiao’s and our work suggest that the downregulated miR-142-3p expression detected in NSCLC tissues and cells could be responsible for the upregulated HMGB1 expression in this malignancy, and the miR-142-3p/HMGB1 signaling likely contributes to both NSCLC tumorigenesis and chemo-resistance. Targeting the miR-142-3p/HMGB1 signaling might be an effective strategy to find novel therapeutic agents for NSCLC.
My summary: They varied the lengths and amino acid compositions of the proteins to optimize cell type differentiation of the ERT2–Cas9–ERT2 architecture. They focused on six amino acids (A, E, G, P, S, and T) that had been reported to be ideal for generating open flexible loops. The names of the six amino acids were not reported in this publication or in the publication they cited.
There would be no way to link them from natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality even in you knew that is what they did. It is not likely that anyone else would link energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to the fact that A recombinant polypeptide extends the in vivo half-life of peptides and proteins in a tunable manner via this report: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction.
Researchers have consistently linked microRNA flanking sequences to all biodiversity via energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and variations in 2 to 20 amino acid substitutions in proteins. They have linked one amino acid substitution in the influenza virus to increased virulence. They have linked chiralilty to autophagy and all biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
Why is anyone still reporting claims that are based on the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian theories?
See: Human Ancestors (2013)
For perspective, some evolutionary milestones include the earth cooling to the point where life was possible about 4 billion years ago, just half a billion years after its creation. Recently, signs of bacterial life have been found from around 3.5 billion years ago. Because 500 million years is not much time to evolve complex bacteria, theories of astrobiology are flourishing.