Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (4)

By: James V. Kohl | Published on: October 12, 2017

The structure-energy landscape of NMDA receptor gating

The NMDA receptor gating is complex, exhibiting multiple closed, open, and desensitized states; however, central questions regarding the conformations and energetics of the transmembrane domains as they relate to the gating states are still unanswered.

Reported as: Molecule Movements Through Nerve Cells Could Lead to Multi-functional Drugs

The subunits sit on each side of the channel and activate when they bind both glutamate and glycine neurotransmitter ligands and trigger the signaling pathway that allows positively charged ions to pass into the cell.

They linked energy as information to binding of glutamate and glycine, which links the creation of achiral glycine to the stability of organized human genomes via  NMDA receptor gating
See also: In Vivo Brain Glycine and Glutamate Concentrations in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis Measured by Echo Time–Averaged Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 4T

The purpose of this study was to quantify in vivo glutamate (Glu) and glycine (Gly) levels in patients with first-episode psychosis as well as age-matched healthy control subjects…

Reported as: Research identifies brain chemical abnormalities in earliest stage of psychosis

Abnormal brain activity in psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, is thought to stem in part from impaired function of the NMDA receptor. Glutamate and glycine activate the receptor, which is an important mediator of brain signaling for processes such as learning and memory.


“This study supports the notion of different developmental phases in the biology of schizophrenia. These phases might require somewhat different treatments,” said Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry.

All studies by serious scientists support the fact that different developmental phases of biophysically constrained viral latency must be linked to healthy longevity via the fixation of amino acid substitutions.They used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) instead of cryo-EM to tentatively claim what is already known. Then, without making all the connections from atoms to ecosystems, they reported on indirect measurements that linked energy-dependent changes from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the physiology of reproduction.
In all vertebrates, the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones on gondadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) biophysically constrain the virus driven-degradation of messenger RNA. The fixation of the only achiral amino acid glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapetide now links the energy-dependent de novo creation of the amino acid to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera via two different measurements of energy.
The energy appears to comes from sunlight or from what organisms eat with the possible exception of The Sea Slug That Eats The Sun (video)
See also:  Life finds a way (video)
Hopefully, it is obvious that life DOES NOT find a way unless it has enough energy to find food. After that, the metabolism of the food links its pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to its biophysically constrained biodiversity. For a reminder of that fact, see:
Team shows how seemingly acute viral infections can persist

…our cells are wired to survive if they are engaged in an antiviral response…

The difference between cells with an innate energy-dependent molecular mechanism that protects their messenger RNA from virus-driven energy theft and portrayals of how “life finds a way” is considerable. Life cannot find away outside the context of its creation and the creation of appears to have somehow included protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
See for example: Scalable Production of iPSC-Derived Human Neurons to Identify Tau-Lowering Compounds by High-Content Screening

…we differentiated these iPSCs into cortical glutamatergic neurons….

Reported as: Neuronal Stem Cell Drug Screen for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment
The fact that the achiral amino acid glycine must be involved in the differentiation and the stability of cortical glutamatergic neurons has already been addressed in the context of treatment placed into the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all vertebrates.
See: Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis
The most effective way to prevent all virus-driven neurodegenerative diseases was placed into the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in 1994.
See: [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)]
See also: Chemosignals from isolated females have antimutagenic effect in dividing the cells of bone marrow from male mice of the CBA strain

Humans also have various pheromone-induced physiological effects, especially those associated with reproduction [46, 47]. This suggests that the human olfactory system is still an effective pathway for influencing environmental factors on the human nervous system. Various psychoemotional states of the human nervous system can, in turn, disrupt the integrity of the chromosomal apparatus of target cells, for instance lymphocytes [41, 42]. Therefore, studies on the oppositely directional modulation of the mutagenic consequences of stress in rodents with the use of specific, volatile, and zoosocial important chemosignals are a promising approach both to modeling posttraumatic stress disorders in humans [36] and to searching for mehods of their treatment.

Humans also have various pheromone-induced physiological effects, especially those associated with reproduction [46, 47]. This suggests that the human olfactory system is still an effective pathway for influencing environmental factors on the human nervous

[46] is Kohl, J.V., Atzmueller, M., Fink, B., and Grammer, K., Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 2001, vol. 22, pp. 309–321.
See also: Cytogenetic approaches for determining ecological stress in aquatic and terrestrial biosystems

The lower limit for the frequency values for spontaneous mitotic disturbances (1.6–1.8%) is comparable with the level of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes in humans. A three–five fold increase in the level of chromosomal aberrations in the blood cells of persons at risk (for example, medical personnel in radiology departments), compared to the spontaneous level, is seen as undesirable (Marcon et al., 2003; Kasuba et al., 2008; Zakeri and Hirobe, 2010). Therefore, our estimate of the tripling of the overall frequency of disturbances in the tested crustaceans (to about 5% over the minimum values of about 1.6–1.8%) can be considered as the threshold value: (1) lower values indicate a moderate (acceptable) level of contamination with mutagens; (2) higher frequencies are a sign of significant contamination at the collection sites of the test material.

They linked ecological stress from invertebrates to vertebrates via the increased rate of mutations after having established, since 1994, the protective epigenetic effects of pheromones, which link neuroendocrinology and ethology to cell type differentiation in all species that sexually reproduce.

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