Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (1)
Biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera from what appears to be the “dawn of creation.”
See: Conceptual Insights, Energy Transformations in Oxidative Phosphorylation (2002)
View this media module for an animated, interactive summary of how electron transfer potential is converted into proton-motive force and, finally, phosphoryl transfer potential in oxidative phosphorylation.
See: Section 18.4A Proton Gradient Powers the Synthesis of ATP
Place what is known to all serious scientists about the proton motive force into the context of energy-dependent electron transfer potential.
See also: Chemiosmosis
…the term proton-motive force (PMF)… can be described as the measure of the potential energy stored as a combination of proton and voltage (electrical potential) gradients across a membrane. The electrical gradient is a consequence of the charge separation across the membrane (when the protons H+ move without a counterion, such as chloride Cl−).
See: Search results for proton motive force
On February 2, 2018 and on February 26, 2018 I linked the claim that Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase (2017) to findings on RNA-RNA interactions in The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14 (1993) This link opens the to free pdf
Two small lin-4 transcripts of approximately 22 and 61 nt were identified in C. elegans and found to contain sequences complementary to a repeated sequence element in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of lin-14 mRNA, suggesting that lin-4 regulates lin-14 translation via an antisense RNA-RNA interaction.
The small lin-4 transcripts of approximately 22 and 61 nt were subsequently referred to as pre-mRNAs before the term pre-mRNA became microRNA as the number of nucleotides (nt) was reduced to 22 in the context of more than 70,000 published works on microRNAs. See: microRNA
In the context of what is known about how top-down causation must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links differences in the energy of two photons from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs. The link from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs is endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). Endogenous RNAi is manifested as energy-dependent differences in biophysically constrained viral latency. Biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera from what appears to be the “dawn of creation.”
For instance see: Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants (2012) and Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes (2012)
Reported May 17, 2012 as: Humans riddled with rare genetic variants
See also: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants (2013)
Reported November 28, 2012 Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome
See also: The splicing code (Feb 2018)
…except for very few and marginal variations, it is the same from bacteria to man, the RNA stretch: 5′ GUGUUC 3′ reads as the dipeptide: Val-Phe in bacteria, in yeast, in Arabidopsis, in zebra fish, in mouse and in human. A degree of ambiguity is possible if mutations are introduced in the tRNAs in a way that the anticodon reads one amino acid but the aminoacyl-transferase attaches a different one onto the tRNA.
See also: Creatures’ Adaptability Begins with Their Sensors
Sensory input must be linked to energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency.
See: OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons
…most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…
In 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate:The Existence of Nothing, Neil deGrasse Tyson made this spurious claim:
Isaac Asimov, “…perhaps, the last polymath of our civilization.”
A polymath should be required to link quantum physics from quantum chemistry to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity. Wide-ranging knowledge should include what is known about the conserved molecular mechanisms that link the food energy-dependent physiology of reproduction to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to humans.
Eshel Ben-Jacob and Greg Bear are polymaths. Isaac Asimov was not.
Eshel Ben-Jacob presciently linked Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (2009) to the biophysically constrained viral latency Greg Bear placed into the context of the creation of a new human species in two books reviewed in Nature:
Evolution rising from the grave (2000)
Living with the Neanderthals (2003)
See also: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)
Polymaths should be able to recognize patterns that link photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation from the creation of enzymes to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated DNA repair, which links ecological variation from phytoremediation to ecological adaptations in all living genera. Anyone who fails to do that in the context of the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens should be called a biologically uninformed theorist or a science journalist who has no excuse for reporting pseudoscientific nonsense.
The only way to resurrect the bacterial flagellum over-the-weekend involves what is known as the proton motive force. Fro example: A twitter search for “proton motive force” led me to this claim, thanks to Nigel Ten Fleming
Enzyme-bound ATP forms readily in the absence of a proton-motive force.
In the context of Energy Transformations in Oxidative Phosphorylation (2002), that claim was followed by this claim:
…the role of the proton gradient is not to form ATP but to release it from the synthase.
If the aspartate residue is protonated to its neutral form, the c ring can now rotate, but only in a clockwise direction. Such a rotation moves the newly protonated aspartic acid residue into contact with the membrane, moves the charged aspartate residue from contact with the matrix half-channel to the cytosolic half-channel, and moves a different protonated aspartic acid residue from contact with the membrane to the matrix half-channel. The proton can then dissociate from aspartic acid and move through the half-channel into the proton-poor matrix to restore the initial state. This dissociation is favored by the positive charge on a conserved arginine residue (Arg 210) in the a subunit.
The difference in the energy of photons was linked from protons to hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The energy-dependent biophysically constraints link microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the differences in all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.
See also: 18.4.5. ATP Synthase and G Proteins Have Several Common Features (with my emphasis)
In Chapter 15, we learned that the signaling properties of other members of this family, the G proteins, depend on their ability to bind nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates with great kinetic tenacity. They do not exchange nucleotides unless they are stimulated to do so by interaction with other proteins. The binding-change mechanism of ATP synthase is a variation on this theme. The three different faces of the γ subunit of ATP synthase interact with the P-loop regions of the β subunits to favor the structures of either the NDP- or NTP-binding forms or to facilitate nucleotide release. The conformational changes take place in an orderly way, driven by the rotation of the γ subunit.
See for comparison:Jay R. Feierman:
Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
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