The eternal significance of microRNAs (3)
When trapped by their ridiculous theories, they no longer kick, scream, or bite (like weasels). They participate in so-called marches like the 2018 March for Science (April 14, 2018) where placards already proclaim they want “Science Not Silence.” I suspect that no placards will make claims about pseudouridylation or use the symbol (Ψ) for the most abundant and widespread type of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA epigenetic modification in all living genera.
Pseudouridylation (Ψ) is the most abundant and widespread type of RNA epigenetic modification in living organisms; however, the biological role of Ψ remains poorly understood. Here, we show that a Ψ-driven posttranscriptional program steers translation control to impact stem cell commitment during early embryogenesis. Mechanistically, the Ψ “writer” PUS7 modifies and activates a novel network of tRNA-derived small fragments (tRFs) targeting the translation initiation complex. PUS7 inactivation in embryonic stem cells impairs tRF-mediated translation regulation, leading to increased protein biosynthesis and defective germ layer specification. Remarkably, dysregulation of this posttranscriptional regulatory circuitry impairs hematopoietic stem cell commitment and is common to aggressive subtypes of human myelodysplastic syndromes. Our findings unveil a critical function of Ψ in directing translation control in stem cells with important implications for development and disease.
The virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information causes the dysregulation of this post-transcriptional regulatory circuitry. The change to the symbol Ψ replaces the term pseudouridylation and obfuscates what is known to all serious scientists about energy-dependent epigenetic effects on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans.
Pseudouridylation (Ψ) was reported as: Mechanism Vital to Keeping Blood Stem Cells Functional Uncovered
The team’s key discovery was that stem cells lacking an enzyme responsible for pseudouridine modification of RNA, known as PUS7, produce abnormal amounts of protein. This protein overload leads to unbalanced stem cell growth and dramatically blocks differentiation to blood cells.
The energy-dependent creation of enzymes biophysically constrained blood stem cell structure and function in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. Many different species may have the same enzymes. The species-specific metabolism of food to pheromones links the creation of the enzymes to survival of the species.
See also: The Role of Noncoding RNA Pseudouridylation in Nuclear Gene Expression Events
Pseudouridine is the most abundant internal RNA modification in stable noncoding RNAs. It can be catalyzed by both RNA-dependent and RNA-independent mechanisms. Pseudouridylation impacts both the biochemical and biophysical properties of RNAs and thus influences RNA-mediated cellular processes. Investigation of nuclear noncoding RNA pseudouridylation has demonstrated that is critical for the proper control of multiple stages of gene expression regulation. Here we review how nuclear noncoding RNA pseudouridylation contributes to transcriptional regulation and pre-mRNA splicing.
The review of how nuclear noncoding RNA pseudouridylation contributes to transcriptional regulation and pre-mRNA splicing can be placed into the context of our 1996 review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from yeasts to humans.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
The experimental evidence of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation has been virtually ignored for more than two decades.
See for comparison;
The 2017 March for Science was reported to be the largest ever public demonstration on behalf of science. The survey research on participants from Mason Climate Comm is out and the results are fascinating!
This time, the marchers hope no one will notice that no experimental evidence of top-down causation has been linked from subatomic particles to every level of biological organization, which must be linked to biophysically constrained viral latency.
Will the evidence of pseudouridylation that is not reported in the context of the symbol Ψ be used to make policy decisions?