Kohl’s Laws of Biology (codon-optimality revisited)
Summary: Kohl’s Laws help to explain what was missing from Darwin’s ‘conditions of life.’ Darwin knew nothing about genetics, which means he knew nothing about the epigenetic effects of food odors or pheromones.
Ancient hepatitis B viruses from the Bronze Age to the Medieval period 5/7/18
We provide evidence for the creation of HBV genotype A via recombination, and for a long-term association of modern HBV genotypes with humans, including the discovery of a human genotype that is now extinct. These data expose a complexity of HBV evolution that is not evident when considering modern sequences alone.
The complexity of biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera refutes all pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists and Big Bang cosmologists.
See for example: Who were the Neanderthals? 5/5/18
Current evidence from both fossils and DNA suggests that Neanderthal and modern human lineages separated at least 500,000 years ago. Some genetic calibrations place their divergence at about 650,000 years ago.
No serious scientists believe in the nonsense that links genetic calibrations to “divergence” at about 650,000 years ago.
See for comparison: Efficient coding explains the universal law of generalization in human perception 5/11/18
Everything known to serious scientists about natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and RNA-mediated DNA repair is placed back into the context of evolution, which is subject to constraints (finding food and reproduction).
See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception (2017)
The creation of visual perception starts with the energy-dependent creation of enzymes.
…the enzyme transduces the energy of a proton gradient, generated by the electron transport chain, into the major energy currency of the cell, ATP.
The quantized energy-dependent creation of the enzyme was linked to the creation of ATP and RNA
Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.
Hybridization is an important force in evolution.
That is a ridiculous assumption. Quantized energy is an important force in ecological adaptation. That is a fact.
Competition between the NAD+ precursors—nuclear NMNAT-1 and cytosolic NMNAT-2…, regulates the balance between nuclear NAD+ synthesis for adipogenic gene regulation and cytosolic NAD+ synthesis used in metabolism.
Every aspect of what is currently know about life on Earth begins with the creation of quantized energy.
Energy efficiency drives the global seasonal distribution of birds 5/7/18
Reported as: A Thermodynamic Answer to Why Birds Migrate 5/7/18
…research makes a forceful argument that energy supply and demand is a driving ecological principle shaping the global structure of biodiversity.”
In this 1996 review, we linked the sex differences in yeasts to sex differences in humans via alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs, which are now called microRNAs. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
I linked quantized energy from subatomic particles to all biodiversity via the creation of microRNAs in:
2014 Preprint: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
2018 Publication: Nutrient-dependent Pheromone-Controlled Ecological Adaptations: From Angstroms to Ecosystems
Biophysical constraints and biological laws appear to link ecological variation to ecological adaptations via conserved molecular mechanisms in all species. For example, nutrient-dependent ecological niche construction leads to pheromone-controlled social niche construction via the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. The nutrient-dependent origin of amino acid substitutions in viruses [149-152], which also are manifested in plant and animal interactions, exemplifies a continuum of biological plausibility and ecological validity in the context of Laws of Biology. These Laws of Biology include Kohl’s Laws of Biology, which are so named because the surname of the first author or sole author on each of 7 peer-reviewed publications in the paragraph below is Kohl. The Kohls did not create the Laws of Biology; they merely independently incorporated what is known about them into what appears to be a cohesive series of published works.
Kohl’s Laws of Biology
Life is nutrient-dependent. That is a Biological Law. The ecological origin of all biological laws is apparent 1) in the context of systems biology ; 2) in the context of the metabolism of nutrients by microbes ; and 3) in the context of how the metabolism of nutrients results in species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction . Taken together, the systems biology of nutrient metabolism to species-specific pheromones, which control the physiology of reproduction, can be expressed in a summary of Kohl’s Laws of Biology: 1) Life is nutrient-dependent.
See for review [27,155]. The physiology of reproduction is pheromone-controlled. See for review . In the context of nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected human reproduction, it is clearer that the epigenetic effects of human pheromones integrate neuroendocrinology and behavior , which includes the neuroendocrinology of mammalian behavior associated with the development of sexual preferences .
Kohl’s Laws help to explain what was missing from Darwin’s ‘conditions of life.’ Darwin knew nothing about genetics, which means he knew nothing about the epigenetic effects of food odors or pheromones.