Summary: All cell type differences in all individuals of all living genera have since been linked from energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to healthy longevity, or from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology via the activation of genes or via the loss of genes, which is determined by the alternative splicings.
Splicing factors are crucial proteins that help gene perform their full range of functions. A single gene can code multiple instructions for the body, such as whether or not to grow new blood vessels, and the splicing factors are the decision makers that choose which message takes priority. Because splicing factors become increasingly inefficient with age, the body ends up losing its ability to respond properly to the many challenges in the environment.
From our section on Molecular Epigenetics in this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
All cell type differences in all individuals of all living genera have since been linked from energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to healthy longevity, or from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology via the activation of genes or via the loss of genes, which is determined by the alternative splicings.
An article in the Medical Laboratory Observer finally attests to what is known to all serious scientists about the difference between healthy longevity and pathology. That fact attests to the overwhelming about of “human idiocy” displayed across the disciplines of physics, chemistry, and molecular biology.
…diamidophosphate (DAP)—a plausible prebiotic agent produced from trimetaphosphate—efficiently (amido)phosphorylates a wide variety of (pre)biological building blocks (nucleosides/tides, amino acids and lipid precursors) under aqueous (solution/paste) conditions, without the need for a condensing agent.
The creation of the building blocks required for protein biosynthesis was reported as: Scientists find potential ‘missing link’ in chemistry that led to life on Earth
“It reminds me of the Fairy Godmother in Cinderella, who waves a wand and ‘poof,’ ‘poof,’ ‘poof,’ everything simple is transformed into something more complex and interesting,” Krishnamurthy said.
They ignore the fact that the condensing agent is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in the context of supercoiled DNA. Their claim about the “Fairy Godmother” reminds me of the claim that God said “Let there be light” and Schrodinger’s claims (1944) about the anti-entropic effects of quantized energy–a condensing agent linked to hydrophobicity in supercoiled DNA. But that reminds me of Feynman’s claims about food energy and human idiocy.
And that reminds me of everything I learned about energy-dependent feeback loops before I learned about virus-driven energy theft.
Phosphorylation biophysically constrains energy-dependent pheromone-controlled viral latency. See: Socially responsive effects of brain oxidative metabolism on aggression
Quantized energy as information has been linked by serious scientists to the pheromone controlled physiology of reproduction and all biodiversity on earth.
The virus driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology. All else has always been considered an example of human idiocy by people who refuse to learn anything about physics, chemistry, molecular epigenetics, or biophysically constrained viral latency.