…ribosomal proteins S4X and S4Y (rpS4X, rpS4Y) are produced by sexually dimorphic genes whose protein products are sexually dimorphic. This suggests the possibility of subtle nuances in the ribosomal translation of at least some mRNA, in certain cell types (Fisher et al.,1990; Zinn et al., 1994).
Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
In addition to these accurate representations of RNA-mediated biologically-based cause and effect, see:
RNA-triggered gene silencing (1999)
5. Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).
…the RNA includes between about 20 to about 100 nucleotides.
MicroRNA: A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance continue to be portrayed in the context of healthy longevity for comparison to virus-driven energy theft and pathology in publications like this:
RNAi has targeted exogenous genes in models of viral infection (hepatitis B virus (HBV), influenza virus, Ebola virus) and in tumor xenografts. Initial, RNAi-dependent trials aimed at the delivering siRNA locally or on objects, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), for the treatment of the wet age-related macular degeneration and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) for the treatment of RSV infections but lately the efficient delivery of VEGF-specific siRNA is done by a direct injection into the vitreal cavity to the eye . RNAi therapeutics through the direct delivery of siRNA into the lungs can treat RSV infection . However, the fruitful and feasible RNAi dependent therapeutics for many other diseases, particularly like cancer, require a more precise delivery to the tissues, remains yet to be realised.
See also this discussion from the Neuroscience FB group: World’s Smartest Physicist Thinks Science Can’t Crack Consciousness
No matter how clear it becomes that nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs are linked to healthy longevity via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera, the fact that they are essential to establishing viral latency to prevent pathology are not likely to be accepted by theorists. Most theorists prefer to continue misrepresenting biologically-based cause and effect as if it was not biophysically constrained by codon usage and RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry.
Most theorists are not willing to look at any experimental evidence that links energy-dependent microRNA flanking sequences from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs to healthy longevity or to look at experimental evidence like this, which clearly links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
Theorists and other pseudoscientists will continue to block publication of reviews like this. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.
See also: Biodiversity Heritage Library from 8/18/16 with my emphasis in the comment below
Thousands of plant and animal species unknown to Western science were collected during the United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842), which weighed anchor on this day in 1838
Congress authorized publication of the expedition’s reports, with the hopes that, by doing so, the U.S. would make its mark on the international scientific community. The first 5 volumes of the work consisted of a narrative by the expedition’s commanding officer, United States Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes. An additional 19 volumes, 9 atlases, and 2 volumes of charts were originally intended for the publication, which was published over 30 years (1844-1874) at a cost of $360,000 (in 19th-century dollars). Ultimately, 2 of the intended volumes were never officially distributed and 3 were never printed.
Everything known about all energy-dependent biodiversity continues to be placed into the context of ridiculous theories about how mutation-driven evolution can explain difference in morphological and behavioral phenotypes despite that lack of explanatory power of any theory.
For comparison, see: Mutation-Driven Evolution (June 14, 2013)
In other words, genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world. In this view of evolution there is no need of considering teleological elements (p. 199).
Only a brain-dead theorist would suggest to others that there is no need to consider telelogical elements.
See for comparison: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (June 14, 2013)
Unconscious affects that are manifested during the development of diversified life and human behavior are, by their very nature, part of life that few people think about (Kohl et al., 2001). Therefore, the largest contributor to the development of our personal preferences may be the unconscious epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones on hormones that organize and activate behavior. If so, the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.
As a reminder of how neo-Darwinian theorists have blinded themselves to accurate representations of biologically-based cause and effect, see anything written about the history that now links viruses in H. pylori to cancer via the energy theft manifested in Ulcerative Colitis and all other Disease Phenotypes.
Zika virus damage manifested in the context of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance as changes in morphological phentypes (i.e, craniofacial) and in brain development can be compared to the representations in the fossil record that paleontologists would tell other pseudoscientists is evidence of primate speciation. It is nothing more than a manifestation of how ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptation except in the presence of stress and virus-driven energy theft, which is linked to all pathology. A few generations of Zika virus-damage would lead to extinction of a human population, not to the evolution of a new primate species.
Any conclusions based on the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian theory, are not likely to include information that would like virus-driven energy theft across species to craniofacial morphology and brain development in extant or extinct populations of primates.
See for example: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution
…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla (p. 127).