Summary: Theorists and most science journalists have failed to link the anti-entropic energy of sunlight from physical constraints on the creation of new galaxies to the biophysical constraints of ultraviolet light on viral latency. Viral latency prevents mutation-driven evolution in the context of the energy-dependent creation of ATP, microRNAs, RNA and established links from base editing to microRNA editing and RNA editing. Every aspect of energy-dependent editing links alternative splicings of pre-mRNA (microRNAs) from light-activated endogenous substrates to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. Feedback loops link food odors and pheromones to all biodiversity via what has been known or suspected about biophysically constrained feedback for more than 50 years.

A whirling plane of satellite galaxies around Centaurus A challenges cold dark matter cosmology Feb 2, 2018

Reported as:

This is inconsistent with more than 99% of comparable galaxies in simulations. Centaurus A, the Milky Way, and Andromeda all have highly statistically unlikely satellite systems. This observational evidence suggests that something is wrong with standard cosmological simulations.Science, this issue p. 534; see also p. 520

See also: Synchronized Galactic Orbit Challenges Our Best Theory of How the Universe Works Feb 1, 2018

Thanks to Dan Winter for his comment.

“… kind of funny when they fail to recognize a simple picture of phase conjugate (opposing cones) doing ‘4 wave mixing’ – which is how gravity is stabilized- AND emerges into self organization (negentropy)-those who are basically clueless to why objects fall to the ground- have no hope of understanding that the phase conjugate cause of gravity- (www.fractalfield.com/conjugategravity ) is ITSELF the path out of the entropy (belief in inevitable chaos) those fatalists try to infect us with…”

See also: A measurement of the z = 0 UV background from Hα fluorescence

This value is consistent with transmission statistics of the Lyα forest and with recent models of a UVB that is dominated by quasars.

Reported as: Universe’s ultraviolet background could provide clues about missing galaxies

Simulations show that there should be more small galaxies in the Universe, but UV radiation essentially stopped them from developing by depriving them of the gas they need to form stars.

Theorists and most science journalists have failed to link the anti-entropic energy of sunlight from physical constraints on the creation of new galaxies to the biophysical constraints of ultraviolet light on viral latency. Viral latency prevents mutation-driven evolution in the context of the energy-dependent creation of ATP, microRNAs, RNA and established links from base editing to microRNA editing and RNA editing. Every aspect of energy-dependent editing links alternative splicings of pre-mRNA (microRNAs) from light-activated endogenous substrates to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. Feedback loops link food odors and pheromones to all biodiversity via what has been known or suspected about biophysically constrained feedback for more than 50 years.

Serious scientists are beginning to wonder when pseudoscientists and all science journalists will report findings in the context of top-down causation and energy-dependent constraints. Thankfully, we are about to see constraints placed on the amount of pseudoscientific nonsense reported.

See for examples: 

Co-author, John E. Walker is scheduled to present at Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

Structure of the mitochondrial ATP synthase from Pichia angusta determined by electron cryo-microscopy

Living cells need fuel in the form of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, to stay alive. This fuel is generated by a molecular machine made of two motors joined by a rotor. One generates rotation by using energy provided by oxidative metabolism or photosynthesis; the other uses energy transmitted by the rotor to make ATP molecules from its building blocks, adenosine diphosphate, or ADP, and inorganic phosphate. The structure has been determined of a fungal machine, isolated from its cellular power stations, the mitochondria, where the machine operates. It provides unsuspected details of the blueprint of the machine and how it works. The working principles of the fungal machine apply to similar machines in all species.

Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase

Mitochondria generate the cellular fuel ATP to sustain complex life. Production of ATP depends on the oxidation of energy-rich compounds to produce a chemical potential difference for hydrogen ions, the proton motive force (pmf), across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Disruption of the IMM, dissipation of the pmf, and cell death occur if the concentration of calcium ions inside mitochondria is sufficiently elevated to open a pore in the IMM. The identity of the pore is disputed. One proposal is that the pore is in the enzyme that makes ATP. Here, we show that proteins in the enzyme’s peripheral stalk are not involved in the formation or regulation of the pore.

Co-author, Susumu Tonegawa is scheduled to present at Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

Tagging activated neurons with light

Two new protein tools translate neuronal activity into gene expression during a light-defined time window.

Co-author,Ada E. Yonath is scheduled to present at Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

The cryo-EM structure of hibernating 100S ribosome dimer from pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus

…we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the native 100S ribosome from S. aureus, revealing the molecular mechanism of its formation. The structure is distinct from previously reported analogs and relies on the HPF C-terminal extension forming the binding platform for the interactions between both of the small ribosomal subunits. The 100S dimer is formed through interactions between rRNA h26, h40, and protein uS2, involving conformational changes of the head as well as surface regions that could potentially prevent RNA polymerase from docking to the ribosome.

Co-author, John O’Keefe is scheduled to present at Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

The honeycomb maze provides a novel test to study hippocampal-dependent spatial navigation

Rats learn rapidly and their choices are influenced by three factors: the angle between the two choice platforms, the distance from the goal, and the angle between the correct platform and the direction of the goal. Rats with hippocampal damage are impaired in learning and their performance is affected by all three factors.

Co-author, Linda Buck is scheduled to present at Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

These studies reveal a complex interplay between reproduction and other functions in which GnRH neurons appear to integrate information from multiple sources and modulate a variety of brain functions.

The levels of complexity include everything known to serious scientists about energy-dependent niche construction and changes in the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all individuals of all species.

See for example: Hypothalamic microRNAs flip the switch for fertility (2017); The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression (2014); and the section on molecular epigenetics from our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

See for contrasting ignorance:Universal Alternative Splicing of Noncoding Exons (2018)

We propose that noncoding exons are functionally modular, with alternative splicing generating an enormous repertoire of potential regulatory RNAs and a rich transcriptional reservoir for gene evolution.

See also: (Co-author, Linda Partridge is scheduled to present at Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018)

Drosophila as a model for ageing

Drosophila melanogaster has been a key model in developing our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ageing. Of particular note is its role in establishing the evolutionary conservation of reduced insulin and IGF-1-like signaling in promoting healthy ageing.

Sense and antisense RNA are not toxic in Drosophila models of C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD

We confirmed that these RNA foci are capable of sequestering endogenous Drosophila RNA-binding proteins, and that the production of dipeptide proteins (poly-glycine-proline, and poly-glycine-arginine) is suppressed in our models. We find that neither cytoplasmic nor nuclear sense or antisense RNA are toxic when expressed in adult Drosophila neurons, suggesting they have a limited role in disease pathogenesis.

Schrödinger (1944) “What is LIfe?”  placed energy-dependent biophysical constraints on viral latency into the context of light-activated endogenous substrates and ecological adaptations via the physiology of reproduction in species from soil microbes to humans.

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.)

See for comparison: Mutation-Driven Evolution (2013) and my refutation of that pseudoscientific nonsense in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model, which was published on the same day.

See also for a brief video review: “What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy”

 

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