Summary: …the dream to create an effective universal flu vaccine to ultimately eradicate the flu is placed into the context of claims about changes to the virus. The changes are energy-dependent ecological adaptations. No one claims that the virus mutates or that it evolves. Only biologically uninformed theorists make such ridiculous claims.
The patent describes influenza vaccines comprised of multiple copies of several epitopes, such as M-001 which contains nine common and conserved influenza virus epitopes.
The use of the word epitope obfuscates cause and effect in the context of natural information processing, which is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. If they used the term conserved amino acid substitutions more people might understand the fact the fixation of amino acid substitutions biophysically constrains viral latency. Who knows what epitopes are or what they do or how they do it?
See for comparison: Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (Israel) and Generation of influenza A viruses as live but replication-incompetent virus vaccines, (China) which was reported as: Engineered virus has artificial amino acid allowing it to serve as a vaccine
Researchers in other countries, but not in the United States of America, have made scientific progress that helps to make sense of claims about energy-dependent natural information processing and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that biophysicaily constrain viral latency and typically prevent all pathology.
In this video, the dream to create an effective universal flu vaccine to ultimately eradicate the flu is placed into the context of claims about changes to the virus. The changes are energy-dependent ecological adaptations. No one claims that the virus mutates or that it evolves. Only biologically uninformed theorists make such ridiculous claims.
See for comparison: How to Build a Better Flu Shot (with my emphasis)
1) … the influenza virus has many rapidly mutating strains. And because the strains mutate so quickly…
2) …the mushroom head of hemagglutinin mutates rapidly, so antibodies against one type of head won’t work against a mutant version.
3) To infect the cell, the stalk of the hemagglutinin mushroom becomes completely rearranged from its normal state. “It’s a machine,” Krammer explains. “It doesn’t tolerate mutations well. If you introduce mutations, you destroy the machine, so the virus doesn’t like to change it.”
4) Other teams are testing headless stalks made by anchoring the stalk to a ferritin protein nanoparticle or by creating genetic mutations at the top, as potential vaccines too.
5) In a study published January 19 in Science, University of California, Los Angeles, virologist Ren Sun and colleagues identified eight genetic mutations that make the flu virus sensitive to a host cell’s interferons.
6) “The team was able to mutate this virus for interferon sensitivity without changing the immune response, which is a challenge.”
7) Fauci says one essential piece of information scientists need to build a universal flu vaccine is to understand how serial exposure to the virus and vaccination affects the immune system.
8) “This is what we call immunological imprinting. It’s controversial, but we need to know what the influence is to create a broadly effective flu vaccine,” Fauci says.
9) Understanding the effect of pre-existing immunity on virus evolution is also important, given that vaccination itself could influence how flu strains evolve, Fauci and colleagues note in a paper published last summer in Immunity
10) The paper describes a path toward making a universal flu vaccine. “I see this work falling into three buckets,” Fauci says. “There’s the bucket on antibody development, the bucket on boosting the immune response to flu, and finally the bucket on prior exposure and how that affects the immune system,” he says.
Fauci wants others to believe that viruses mutate and evolve but that immunological imprinting is controversial. He has many others to help people in the United States accept the claims about mutations and evolution and put the claims of serious scientists who understand the facts about immunological imprinting into the context of controversy.
My comment to The Scientist:
In this report from the NIH: Flu infection study increases understanding of natural immunity the focus on the change in the influenza virus was properly placed into context of energy-dependent changes in the virus, which are called ecological adaptations when they occur in human populations.
For example, one energy-dependent amino acid substitution causes increased virulence in the influenza virus, as clearly stated here: The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
Simply put, all serious scientists know that viruses do not mutate and evolve. Viruses steal the energy that biophysically constrains viral latency and some humans in some human populations fail to ecologically adapt as quickly as others.
Is Fauci, or anyone else who made claims in the article from The Scientist, a serious scientist? Unfortunately, the answer is no. Serious scientists do not believe that mutations can be linked to evolution. That gives them an edge if they are working in other countries, but not the United States of America.
See how serious scientists in some countries will maintain their edge, and continue to put theorists from the United States of America to shame — along with all the so-called science journalists who report the nonsense about mutations and evolution.
There are many people who don’t believe the evolutionary account is correct,” he was quoted as saying. “There are those for whom evolution is a religion and are unwilling to hear about anything else. Part of my responsibility, in light of my position with the Education Ministry, is to examine textbooks and curricula.”
See also: Israeli Middle Schools School to Include Theory of Evolution (2014)
“…learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology.”
Those who learn about ecology are less likely to make claims about mutations or evolution.
The secular opposition has long argued that the government of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is pursuing a covert Islamist agenda contrary to the republic’s founding values.
Does anyone in the United States think that the Trump administration is pursuing a covert Christian agenda? If so, see:
A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!