The Mind of a Bee 7/26/22 frames food energy-dependent pheromone-regulated genetic processes of reproduction in the context of millions of years of evolved biodiversity.

Marc Bekoff (an American biologist, ethologist and behavioural ecologist) claims that the book is: A most outstanding and fascinating book about these amazing animals.

Bekoff’s elaboration appears to be a moronic attempt to avoid Lars Chittka’s claims about millions of years of evolution.

Bees are remarkably intelligent beings. They display highly evolved cognitive abilities and various emotions. The more I learn about them, the more fascinated I am with what research is revealing about their very active minds—what it feels like to be a bee—and their ecological importance. The world is full of all sorts of diverse “alien” intelligences, and I’m thrilled bee expert Lars Chittka wrote this riveting book about these most amazing animals. Bees perceive the world and think and feel about it in completely different ways from how we do, but they are no less valid. New research covered in this book reveals that bees are profoundly intelligent creatures with individually distinct personalities that can recognize flowers and human faces, count, and display tool use which they can even learn by observing others. The insight that bees have a rich inner world and are able to think, to enjoy, and to suffer, commands a respect for the diversity of minds in the natural world, and with it comes an obligation to protect the environments that shaped these other minds. I highly recommend this book to a broad global audience. It is *that* good.

No experimental evidence of top-down causation has been linked to “…evolved cognitive abilities and various emotions.”  See for comparison:  A chromosomal inversion contributes to divergence in multiple traits between deer mouse ecotypes 7/21/22

Ecotypes can persist over long time periods, even with substantial gene flow between them, which raises the question of how they maintain their locally adaptive phenotypes over time.

Locally adapted phenotypes are common across species from microbes to humans. They exemplify nutrient-dependent pheromone-regulated genetic processes of reproduction during the past ~6000 years, which were first linked to sympatric speciation via chromosomal rearrangements in flies by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1910.

Morgan’s claims about sympatric speciation appear in the context of Genotype (for ages 14+), which links ION, Covalence, Subatomic, Periodic, Peptide, Virulence, Cytosis, Virus Expansion,, Ecosystem, and Cellulose: A Plant Cell Biology Game for ages 8-14+ to all biodiversity on Earth via the epigenetic effects of sunlight and humidity on oxygen-dependent ecological adaptations. Stupid theories are not given any consideration whatsoever.

The facts allow Lars Chittka and Marc Bekoff to compare their claims to the claims of intelligent serious scientists via publication of Honeybee Brain Oscillations Are Generated by Microtubules. The Concept of a Brain Central Oscillator 9/29/21

The present data provide evidence that MT electrical oscillations are a novel signaling mechanism implicated in brain wave activity observed in the insect brain.

See also six other articles in Biophysical Properties of the Cytoskeleton and Its Role in Neuron Function Edited by Stuart Hameroff.

For example: Electrical Recordings from Dendritic Spines of Adult Mouse Hippocampus and Effect of the Actin Cytoskeleton 7/26/22

The DS [dendritic spines] electrical oscillations were modulated by changes in actin cytoskeleton dynamics by addition of the F-actin disrupter agent, cytochalasin D, and exogenous actin-binding proteins. The data indicate that DS are elaborate excitable electrical devices, whose activity is a functional interplay between ion channels and the underlying actin networks. The data argue in favor of the active contribution of individual DS to the electrical activity of neurons at the level of both the membrane conductance and cytoskeletal signaling.

Simply put, claims about “…a functional interplay between ion channels and the underlying actin networks” refute the pseudoscientific nonsense about the evolution of the The Mind of a Bee across millions of years. The levels of complexity place neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory into the context of automagical stochastic processes.

See for comparison: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model 6/14/13

… behavioral epigenetics has yet to connect all its levels of analysis. It needs, and doesn’t yet have, at least one slam-dunk demonstration of all the links in a chain from behavior to neural activity to gene expression and back out again. (Berreby, )

The honeybee is one slam-dunk demonstration of everything known about the requirement to link energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems during the past ~6000 years via what is known about supercoiled DNA.

Also see: Expression and function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor in human olfactory GnRH-secreting neurons: an autocrine GnRH loop underlies neuronal migration 10/16/03

Achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide links olfaction and pheromones to biophysically constrained triggered axon growth via actin cytoskeleton remodeling in all jawed vertebrates. That suggests fixation of amino acid substitutions in microtubules in the honeybee brain are linked across kingdoms to the creation of all cell types in all tissues of all species via God’s Creation of sunlight, humidity, achiral glycine, and the claim that GnRH secreted by olfactory neuroblasts, acts in an autocrine pattern to promote differentiation and migration of those cells that diverge from the olfactory sensory lineage and are committed to becoming GnRH neurons.

See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction 11/18/05

These studies revealed that GnRH neurons have direct communication with a remarkably large number of brain areas with diverse functions. Though they number only ∼800, GnRH neurons appear to have synaptic contacts with about 50,000 neurons in 53 different brain areas. With the exception of the sexually dimorphic connections already discussed, the locations of BL+ neurons and their numbers in individual brain areas were both strikingly similar among animals, regardless of sex.

It appears that GnRH neurons integrate a variety of information about the internal state of the animal and its external environment. At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. Among these are areas involved in odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, arousal, reward, and other functions. This suggests that GnRH neurons are poised to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior in accordance with the overall state of the animal.

Epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones in vertebrates should not be placed back into the context of the evolution of The Mind of a Bee during millions of years without consideration of experimental evidence linked to Top-down causation and quantum physics 10/23/18

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