Light Energy

Living the life that randomness created? (Sarcasm alert)

The Living Set Mathematical and computational approaches are making strides in understanding how life might have emerged and organized itself from the basic chemistry of early Earth. By Wim Hordijk | June 1, 2015 Excerpt: Put some E. coli in a dish with appropriate nutrients, and after a few days the dish will be teeming with new bacterial offspring. My comment: Put some genetically altered P. fluorescens in a dish and leave them “over-the-weekend” with their missing flagella over-the-weekend. Forget…

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microRNAs, glycosylation, and genomes

Summary: Given what is currently known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all genera, it may be impossible for theorists to link mutations to evolution via glycosylation. miRNA proxy approach reveals hidden functions of glycosylation Abstract excerpt: Glycosylation, the most abundant posttranslational modification, holds an unprecedented capacity for altering biological function. Journal article excerpt: …glycans play a role in every major disease (1), and there are clinical examples of drugs targeting glycosylation enzymes… suggesting that glycosylation enzymes may provide fallow…

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DNA organization, structure, and function

What are microRNAs? Excerpt: MicroRNAs have been shown to be involved in a wide range of biological processes such as cell cycle control, apoptosis and several developmental and physiological processes including stem cell differentiation, hematopoiesis, hypoxia, cardiac and skeletal muscle development, neurogenesis, insulin secretion, cholesterol metabolism, aging, immune responses and viral replication. In addition, highly tissue-specific expression and distinct temporal expression patterns during embryogenesis suggest that microRNAs play a key role in the differentiation and maintenance of tissue identity. My…

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Unknown mechanisms and conclusions

Pheromone killing of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis V583 by native commensal strains From their conclusion: Irrespective of mechanism, the incompatibility between V583 and commensal strains of E. faecalis provides clear support for the hypothesis that this MDR hospital strain and commensal enterococci do not occupy the same habitat (20) and begins to shed light on differences in the colonization properties of hospital and commensal lineages of enterococci. Reported as: Pheromones produced by gut bacteria found to kill resistant variants of its…

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Epigenetic regulation of aging by glycine and GnRH

Summary:  “…the regulation of two genes involved with the production of glycine, the smallest and simplest amino acid, is partly responsible for some of the characteristics of aging. This indicates that the aging process in the mitochondrion is controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations.” My comment: The broad-based extension of the fact that aging is epigenetically controlled, extends everything known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation across the life history transitions of all genera. The focus here is on vertebrates,…

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Pattern recognition: biogeochemical structure and function

Microbes Effect on the Brain Excerpt: Recent research shows dramatic effects of microbe products from the gut on mental function—depression, stress, autism, and degenerative illness. In humans, many studies show microbes affect anxiety, mood, depression and social behavior. Direct effects are through secreted products, stimulation of the enteric nervous system and travel of microbes into the brain, while indirect factors are microbes’ influence on immune function affecting behavior. Microbes produce molecules that transform into hormones and neurotransmitters or they produce…

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Viruses and the human-like microbiome

Ocean’s microbiome has incredible diversity – and human likeness Excerpt: The microbiome of the world’s biggest ecosystem and one of the smallest appear to function in surprisingly similar ways. The New Scientist article  reports on: Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome Journal article abstract conclusion: …vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with…

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Informing the biologically uninformed

Please help those who are not biologically uninformed link the latest information from Science Magazine to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all genera. For example, see:  Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean Introduction: The sunlit surface layer of the world’s oceans functions as a giant biogeochemical membrane between the atmosphere and the ocean interior (1). My comment: That fact links the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of the sun’s biological energy from the de novo creation of amino acids to RNA-mediated…

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Bee-birthed epigenetics and primate cell types

Summary: This is a fantastic video representation of how nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-directed DNA methylation links ecological variation to RNA-mediated ecological adaptations via amino acid substitutions in all genera. The Birth of a Bee Excerpt: After the queen bee lays a single egg in a cell of the comb, the worker bees feed the egg for a few days until it hatches into a larva. The larva continues to eat and grow until Day 10. Then, the worker bees cap the…

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A lighting requirement for life

Some Principles of Causal Analysis in Genetics (1936) Extract: high frequency radiation and particles of high velocity are very important components of the environment, causing heritable changes by a process called mutation. Even if we could conduct our experiments behind 30 metres of lead the fact that mutation has a temperature coefficient is enough to show that it depends in part on energy fluctuations which are uncontrollable. Mutations must be controlled. See also: Life on Earth – Flow of Energy…

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