Light Energy

Vitamin B3 and DNA repair

Role of Nicotinamide in DNA Damage, Mutagenesis, and DNA Repair Conclusion: Nicotinamide, which is the dietary precursor for NAD+, provides a substrate for PARP-1 activity…. In various murine models, PARP-1 inhibition was shown to favor apoptotic cell death, reduce inflammatory response, and reduce genomic sensitivity to various carcinogens. However, extrapolation of these data to human, particularly when physiological regimes involved in human carcinogenesis, should be done cautiously. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of high-dose nicotinamide on in…

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A special issue on nutritional epigenetics

See also: Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome Two decades of scientific progress link what we detailed about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in our 1996 review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.  Others have begun to learn more about the biological basis of ecological adaptations that link nutrient uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates by the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the chemistry of protein folding. For example,…

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Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome

See also: Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway for my additional comments on Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report) Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 “…gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. This protein is one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors, which are related proteins that are…

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Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway

Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1) Excerpt 1) The accumulation of hypoglycosylated nuclear FGFR1 (nFGFR1) is stimulated by a variety of developmental signals, including various growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters as well as a reduction in cell contact. This is the reason that this pathway is referred to as integrative [1, 15]. Reported as: Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report Summary: New research shows how a single…

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Physics, chemistry, light, and life

Making Sense of the Chemistry That Led to Life on Earth By NICHOLAS WADE,  May 4, 2015 Excerpt: He and colleagues have spent the last six years doing experiments to see how the ribonucleotide chemistry pathway can be linked back to hydrogen cyanide as its starting point, and how other significant prebiotic chemicals might have emerged from the cyanide-to-nucleotide pathway. My comment: The starting point was UV light. See: Origin-of-life puzzle cracked Excerpt: Sutherland’s team now reports that it created nucleic acid…

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pH, water, amino acids and protein folding

Solubilities of amino acids in water at various pH values under 298.15 K and Translational tuning optimizes nascent protein folding in cells link what is currently known about the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding to cell type differentiation in all genera via conserved molecular mechanisms.  Mutations are linked from perturbed protein folding to pathology. See for example: From “Science Mission” 5/2/15 at 12 pm Water diffusion and neurodegenerative disease linked to Hydration water mobility is enhanced around tau…

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An epigenetic mark links algae, worms, and flies

New Epigenetic Mark Found on Metazoan DNA Three studies identify roles for N6-methyladenosine in algae, worms, and flies. By Jenny Rood | April 30, 2015 Excerpt (with my emphasis): “In bacteria, 6mA marks the template strand during DNA replication, enabling a cell to spot errors and regulate the cell cycle. The modification also helps differentiate bacterial DNA from viral genomic material, which lacks methylation.” My comment: The ability of a cell or organism to recognize self vs other differences enables…

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DNA molecules do not arrange themselves.

Light-Induced Switching of Tunable Single-Molecule Junctions Reported as: Tiniest circuits: Light-controlled molecule switching Excerpt: One area of research focus in Dresden is what is known as self-organization. “DNA molecules are, for instance, able to arrange themselves into structures without any outside assistance. If we succeed in constructing logical switches from self-organizing molecules, then computers of the future will come from test-tubes,” Dr. Erbe prophesizes. My comment: The idea that DNA molecules arrange themselves without any outside assistance is framed in…

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A genetic variant refutes neo-Darwinism

Summary: They link a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to a genetic variant that decreases viability of an embryo, without linking a nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitution to pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation that begins in the embryo and continues throughout the life history transitions of invertebrates and vertebrates. A Benefit of Failed Pregnancy? This genome-wide association study revealed “…a striking link between mitotic aneuploidy and a single nucleotide variant (SNP rs2305957) on chromosome 4 of maternal genomes.” Excerpt: “There’s this genetic…

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Nutrient-dependent microRNAs control cell types

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Excerpt: “…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance (Breen, Kemena, Vlasov, Notredame, & Kondrashov, 2012; Duvarci, Nader, & LeDoux, 2008; Griggs et al., 2013; Monahan & Lomvardas, 2012) in adaptive evolution will…

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