Alternative splicings: epigenetics meets pharmacogenomics

Alternative splicing [is] …a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins… [T]he proteins translated from alternatively spliced mRNAs will contain differences in their amino acid sequence and, often, in their biological functions…. See also: Alternative RNA Splicing in Evolution Excerpt: It now appears that alternative splicing is, perhaps, the most critical evolutionary factor determining the differences between human beings and other creatures. See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior Excerpt: Small…

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Epigenetic regulation of aging by glycine and GnRH

Summary:  “…the regulation of two genes involved with the production of glycine, the smallest and simplest amino acid, is partly responsible for some of the characteristics of aging. This indicates that the aging process in the mitochondrion is controlled by epigenetic regulation, not by mutations.” My comment: The broad-based extension of the fact that aging is epigenetically controlled, extends everything known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation across the life history transitions of all genera. The focus here is on vertebrates,…

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Physicians who practice evolutionary medicine?

Why Do Some Doctors Reject Evolution? Excerpt: After all, evolution is the foundational principle of biology, which, in turn, is the basic science that backs medicine. Ninety-eight percent of scientists, a closely related profession, accept evolution. My comment: I think they probably included too many social scientists who believe that evolutionary theory is something more than pseudoscientific nonsense. Excerpt: Unfortunately, there don’t seem to be great numbers on the percentage of doctors who accept evolution. My comment: Physicians who accept…

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Viruses and the human-like microbiome

Ocean’s microbiome has incredible diversity – and human likeness Excerpt: The microbiome of the world’s biggest ecosystem and one of the smallest appear to function in surprisingly similar ways. The New Scientist article  reports on: Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome Journal article abstract conclusion: …vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with…

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Informing the biologically uninformed

Please help those who are not biologically uninformed link the latest information from Science Magazine to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all genera. For example, see:  Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean Introduction: The sunlit surface layer of the world’s oceans functions as a giant biogeochemical membrane between the atmosphere and the ocean interior (1). My comment: That fact links the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of the sun’s biological energy from the de novo creation of amino acids to RNA-mediated…

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One amino acid substitution, genes, and brain activity

After a sip of milkshake, genes and brain activity predict weight gain Excerpt: …one-third of the population possesses a second genetic variant associated with fewer dopamine receptors. In these individuals it is response in the dorsal striatum, a region critical for forming habits, that predicts weight gain. People with this genotype are also more prone to addiction and impulsive behavior… My comment: The link from nutritional epigenetics to the metabolic networks and genetic networks that control behavior is clear. Behavior…

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Missing a fact: microRNAs are genomic biomarkers

Summary: The nutrient-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance links virus-induced entropic elasticity and the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent protein biosynthesis and degradation to everything that is currently known about RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. The substitutions differentiate the cell types of all genera. That fact is not being reported in most of the extant literature on healthy longevity and/or pathology. Here is another example of the failure to report facts about biologically-based cause and effect. Note, specifically, this…

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Bee-birthed epigenetics and primate cell types

Summary: This is a fantastic video representation of how nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-directed DNA methylation links ecological variation to RNA-mediated ecological adaptations via amino acid substitutions in all genera. The Birth of a Bee Excerpt: After the queen bee lays a single egg in a cell of the comb, the worker bees feed the egg for a few days until it hatches into a larva. The larva continues to eat and grow until Day 10. Then, the worker bees cap the…

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A lighting requirement for life

Some Principles of Causal Analysis in Genetics (1936) Extract: high frequency radiation and particles of high velocity are very important components of the environment, causing heritable changes by a process called mutation. Even if we could conduct our experiments behind 30 metres of lead the fact that mutation has a temperature coefficient is enough to show that it depends in part on energy fluctuations which are uncontrollable. Mutations must be controlled. See also: Life on Earth – Flow of Energy…

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Vitamin B3 and DNA repair

Role of Nicotinamide in DNA Damage, Mutagenesis, and DNA Repair Conclusion: Nicotinamide, which is the dietary precursor for NAD+, provides a substrate for PARP-1 activity…. In various murine models, PARP-1 inhibition was shown to favor apoptotic cell death, reduce inflammatory response, and reduce genomic sensitivity to various carcinogens. However, extrapolation of these data to human, particularly when physiological regimes involved in human carcinogenesis, should be done cautiously. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of high-dose nicotinamide on in…

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  • What Darwin proved: there’s no such thing as a species
    GENETICS As Animals Mingle, a Baffling Genetic Barrier A short stretch of DNA is challenging what it means to be a species. By: Emily Singer August 5, 2014 Excerpt: “Scientists have dubbed such regions of the genome “islands of speciation.” The persistence of such islands is a phenomenon that has been observed in a variety of […]
  • Randomness and Divine Providence
    A Q&A on randomness and God’s providence …the main goal is to really put together a collection of scholarly studies of these issues: physicists, biologists, […]