Nutrigenomics

Bees and primates automagically evolve

The Evolution of Social Bees Excerpt: …one key feature of increased sociality is an elaboration of gene regulation capacity. See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) Excerpt: …odor perception is more akin to the immune system workings where multitudes of receptors are each uniquely responsive to chemical structures (Bartoshuk and Beauchamp, 1994; Buck and Axel, 1991). Moreover, these receptor proteins are chemically and structurally similar to those that bind neurotransmitters and hormones (Buck and Axel, 1991). See also:…

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Ignoring systems complexity (it’s too complicated)

Host, heal thyself: Immune system self-organizes to minimize biological cost of pathogenic infections Excerpt 1) This approach allowed the scientists to create a new framework that makes it unnecessary to explicitly model intracellular communication, cell differentiation, activation of cofactors, coordination of different cell types, the interaction with the innate immune system, and the full complexity of the recognition process. My comment: Population geneticists took that approach when they invented neo-Darwinian evolution. They eliminated all aspects of nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation…

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Five years of Ferguson

2010 by Lynnette R. Ferguson Dietary influences on mutagenesis—Where is this field going? Conclusion: Optimizing nutritional approaches to the reduction of mutagenesis will require the innovative application of many of the newer technologies becoming available. It is essential not to underestimate the importance of the field. 2015 co-authored by Lynnette R. Ferguson The Interaction between Epigenetics, Nutrition and the Development of Cancer  This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics Excerpt: Dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with the development…

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Virus-driven cancer treatment and prevention

Blocking a metabolic pathway may shrink aggressive form of common kidney cancer Excerpt: ..the cancer cells appear to rely primarily on the metabolism of an amino acid called glutamine for their energy. My comment:  This links differences in hydrogen atom energies and the anti-entropic epigenetic effect of nutrient energy to virus-driven differences in the metabolism of glutamine and DNA repair. Those differences link viral microRNAs to entropic elasticity. The differences also link nutrient-dependent microRNAs to the stability of organized genomes…

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The microbiome, pharmacogenetics, and privacy

Microbiomes raise privacy concerns DNA from microbes living on the human body can be used to identify individuals. Ewen Callaway 11 May 2015 Excerpt: The odds of identifying someone on the basis of their microbiome is low… My comment: The microbiome links top-down causation from nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all genera via the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding during life history transitions. The link to…

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A special issue on nutritional epigenetics

See also: Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome Two decades of scientific progress link what we detailed about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in our 1996 review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.  Others have begun to learn more about the biological basis of ecological adaptations that link nutrient uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates by the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the chemistry of protein folding. For example,…

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Retinoic acid + one receptor regulate the genome

See also: Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway for my additional comments on Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report) Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 “…gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibroblast growth factor receptor 1. This protein is one of four fibroblast growth factor receptors, which are related proteins that are…

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Epigenetics: microRNAs effect an integrative pathway

Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1) Excerpt 1) The accumulation of hypoglycosylated nuclear FGFR1 (nFGFR1) is stimulated by a variety of developmental signals, including various growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters as well as a reduction in cell contact. This is the reason that this pathway is referred to as integrative [1, 15]. Reported as: Master orchestrator of the genome is discovered, stem cell scientists report Summary: New research shows how a single…

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From gut bacteria to breast milk and back

Breast milk may alter behaviour of babies Milk contains sugars designed to feed gut bacteria that affect brain Excerpt:  Breast milk contains a lot of sugars that infants can’t digest, but that feed bacteria that live in human intestines. Those bacteria don’t just help digest food, said Hinde. “They can release chemical signals that travel to the infant’s brain and shape neurodevelopment.” Studies in mice and rats show that signals released by bacteria in the gut can affect how sociable and…

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Chance mutations — not natural selection

A Surprise for Evolution in Giant Tree of Life Excerpt (with my emphasis): Each variant adapted to suit a different ecological niche. But Blair Hedges, a biologist at Temple University in Philadelphia, has proposed a provocative alternative: Adaptation had little to do with it. It was simply a matter of chance and time. See also: The Surprising Origins of Evolutionary Complexity July 16, 2013 Excerpt: Some argue that life has a built-in tendency to become more complex over time. Others…

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