RNA-mediated gene silencing

Foundamentals of theory

There are foundations of epigenetics and fundamentals of molecular mechanisms. They have been detailed in this atoms to ecosystems model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems. I have never seen anyone mention the “foundamentals” of epigenetics. It appears the word has been invented. Similarly, the word “mutation” was invented in 1904 by de Vries. Inventing words and defining them to fit ridiculous theories about neo-Darwinian evolution is required to continue convincing theorists that…

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Nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation

Pattern recognition Establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation patterns in plants and animals Excerpt: FIGURE 2 | Model for RNA-directed DNA methylation. Download high-resolution Power Point slide (112 KB) Where did this pattern come from? It is clearly a consideration in the context of Sensory feedback shapes individuality to provide equal space for behavioral excellence and in Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction. The pattern went missing in this report: Algal ancestor of land plants was preadapted…

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Microbes to humans 2015 Nobel Prize

3 Scientists Win Nobel Prize in Medicine for Parasite-Fighting Therapies Excerpt 1) Success in antimalarial therapy depends on how clever scientists are in using combinations of drugs. Excerpt 2) Dr. Omura played down his accomplishments, saying, “I merely borrowed the power of microbes.” My comment: These two excerpts appear within the context of three paragraphs that clearly link RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans. The context attests to what at first may appear to be a…

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Non-mainstream scientist shares Nobel prize in Medicine

Youyou Tu is the 12th women awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2015) for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria. Historical perspective: Lasker~DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award Excerpt: Tu discovered a passage in the Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergencies (340 CE) by Ge Hong that referenced Qinghao’s malaria-healing capacity. It said “Take a handful of Qinghao, soak in two liters of water, strain the liquid, and drink.” She realized that the standard procedure of boiling and…

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Is mainstream science in “Science” pseudoscience?

See: Single neuron may carry over 1,000 mutations (with my comments),  A natural history of neurons: Diverse mutations reveal lineage of brain cells (with my comments), and Study examines scale of gene mutations in human neurons, All three of the links above are to reports on the study results published as: Somatic mutation in single human neurons tracks developmental and transcriptional history Excerpt 1) We also observed a signature of methylated cytosine (meC) to thymine (T) transitions (fig. S8), which…

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RNA Mediated

Metaphysical science vs theory

I’ve wasted too much time attempting to explain biologically-based facts to the biologically uninformed discussants on Science X network. This is an attempt to salvage some of the time and to move forward.  See: New comments posted on Science X network: – A natural history of neurons: Diverse mutations reveal lineage of brain cells : 1 new comment – Study sheds light on powerful process that turns food into energy : 1 new comment – Study adds to evidence that…

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Do young neurons in the brain evolve?

Brain Gain Young neurons in the adult human brain are likely critical to its function. By Jef Akst | October 1, 2015 Excerpt “The rate at which [new neurons] incorporate is dependent upon experience,” Gage says. My comment: The experience-dependent de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes is the basis for the following representation of biologically-based cause and effect: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction Virus-perturbed nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding biochemistry is the clearest link from nutrient-stress…

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The bug in the “holy grail” of evolution

Evolution Bug by Richard William Nelson, October 1, 2015 Excerpt: In one of the largest invertebrate amino acid sequences studies to date, Young and Hebert, found highly variable patterns of amino acid sequences in the enzyme known as cytochrome C between species. None of Charles Darwin’s continuous “successive, slight” evolutionary changes in more than 4,000 species of arachnids studied were found. The paper, published in the highly respected journal PLoS ONE, August, 2015, demonstrates the persistent bug in the theory…

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Are mutations beneficial?

Researchers develop non-invasive method to detect tumor-causing mutations in saliva Excerpt: “…a multiplexible electrochemical sensor uses electrode chips to enable vesicular entities in saliva called exosomes to rapidly release molecular constituents (DNA, RNA and proteins) while simultaneously detecting any mutations in tumor-causing DNA sequences. The total detection time is less than 10 minutes and required a small saliva sample.” My comment: This news about multiplexing attests to the complexity of systems biology, which links amino acid substitutions to mutated DNA…

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