For comparison, see:
Single-molecule and single-cell studies reveal behaviors that are hidden in bulk measurements (1, 2). In a human cell, the genetic information is encoded in 46 chromosomes. The variations occurring in these chromosomes, such as single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) and copy-number variations (CNVs) (3), are the driving forces in biological processes such as evolution and cancer. Such dynamic variations are reflected in the genomic heterogeneity among a population of cells, which demands characterization of genomes at the single-cell level (4–6).
My comment: Many evolutionary theorists seem to think the same biological processes are linked to cancer and evolution. They based their thoughts and theories on assumptions that incorporated de Vries turn of the 20th century definition of “mutation.” Population geneticists assumed that accumulated mutations, which lead to cancer, also lead to evolution. Their assumptions have not changed in more than 100 years.
See for contrast:
Reported as: Singular Expression of Olfactory Receptors
…activation and feedback can indeed generate OR singularity a striking example of enzyme kinetics, in which the nervous system utilizes the relative timescales of slow epigenetic changes (histone demethylation) and fast transcriptional regulations (depletion of the demethylase) to generate a dramatic outcome in neurogenesis. Our conclusions are generally applicable to other systems where singularity is desired, such as V(D)J recombination in the immune system and the expression of protocadherins.
My comment: V(D)J recombination in the immune system and the expression of protocadherins were placed into the context of an epigenetic trap that stabilizes organized genomes.
Singular olfactory receptor (OR) gene expression is stabilized by an epigenetic trap in which the LSD1 demethylase desilences an OR gene but is then downregulated as a consequence of OR protein expression, preventing the activation of additional OR alleles.
My comment: Nutrient-dependent microRNAs and the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-mediated gene duplication link the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the context of reproduction to protein folding and cell type differentiation in all cell types of all individuals of all genera. That fact is not quite clear in:
The investigators discovered that PLEKHA7 maintains the normal state of the cells, via a set of miRNAs, by tethering the microprocessor to E-cadherin and p120. In this state, E-cadherin and p120 exert their good tumor suppressor sides.
My comment: The fact that miRNAs and E-cadherin and p120 suppress tumors suggests that something that causes the tumors must be suppressed. In my model of atoms to ecosystems, the proliferation of viruses that links viral microRNAs from entropic elasticity to genomic entropy is suppressed by nutrient-dependent microRNAs.
My comment: No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect has supported the assumptions of evolutionary theorists.
See for comparison to everything known about cell type differentiation, which has been accurately represented during the past 100 years:
Retromutagenesis is apt to be a universal method of evolutionary adaptation, which enables the emergence of new mutants from mutations acquired during counterselection rather than beforehand, and it may have roles in processes as diverse as the development of antibiotic resistance and neoplasia.
My comment: This claim could be predicted based on the collective ignorance of all evolutionary theorists who refuse to accept the fact that ecological adaptations are nutrient-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction.