See: Regulation of autophagy by amino acids in: Autophagy in the liver: functions in health and disease

Autophagy is the only obvious link from energy-dependent changes in chirality to the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the cell types of all living genera. The amino acid substitutions link nutrient energy as information to supercoiled DNA, which protect all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft. That is how nutritional epigenetics is linked to all  morphological and behavioral diversity. In the same context, they help to show that virus-driven energy theft is the link to all pathology.

See also: microRNA and autophagy  (534 published works link energy-dependent changes in microRNAs to autophagy)

Nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs are also the link to cultural and ethnic differences in all human populations.

See for example: Cultural differences may leave their mark on DNA

This is a big advancement of our understanding of race and ethnicity,” Burchard said. “There’s this whole debate about whether race is fundamentally genetic or is just a social construct. To our knowledge this is the first time anyone has attempted to quantify the molecular signature of the non-genetic components of race and ethnicity. It demonstrates in a whole new way that race combines both genetics and environment.

The claim that this is a big advancement of our understanding of race and ethnicity can be placed into the context of what we claimed on pages 159-162 of The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002) and all other claims that now link energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

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