We describe the spectrum of RBP binding throughout the transcriptome and the connections between these interactions and various aspects of RNA biology, including RNA stability, splicing regulation and RNA localization. These data expand the catalogue of functional elements encoded in the human genome by the addition of a large set of elements that function at the RNA level by interacting with RBPs.
The human genome contains about 20,000 protein-coding genes, but the coding parts of our genes account for only about 2 percent of the entire genome. For the past two decades, scientists have been trying to find out what the other 98 percent is doing.
A research consortium known as ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) has made significant progress toward that goal, identifying many genome locations that bind to regulatory proteins, helping to control which genes get turned on or off. In a new study that is also part of ENCODE, researchers have now identified many additional sites that code for RNA molecules that are likely to influence gene expression.
All intelligent serious scientists have learned that gene expression is energy-dependent. The ENCODE consortium now reports this fact in the context of energy-dependent RNA-mediated binding to regulatory proteins (RBPs).
They eliminate the foolish ideas of neo-Darwinian theorists who claimed that amino acids evolved and that proteins evolved.
See for instance: A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution 2/10/05
Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.
For comparison, scientific creationists from South Korea, Israel, and Iran have led the way to this microRNA-mediated conclusion about RBPs. They forced neo-Darwinian theorists to live in fear of the consequences for their failure to start with God’s Creation of energy-as-information.
Researchers from all the Abrahamic faiths have linked God’s Creation of UV light from His Creation of water to all oxygen-dependent life on Earth via plant growth and the physiology of reproduction, and what is known about light-activated changes in RNA synthesis.
microRNA USA 19012 results since 2001
microRNA korea 2241 results since 2002
microRNA Israel 986 results since 2003
microRNA Iran 1752 results since 2008
For a historical perspective on what is now known about light-activated microRNA-mediated energy-dependent RNA synthesis, see: What is Life? (1944)
Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.
The link from the thymus to immune system function was clear in:
RNA editing and RNAi have an inverse relationship and RNA editing has an important role in viral immunity. These observations indicate unique roles for dsRNAs in the mammalian immune system.
The link from God’s Creation of UV light to RNA editing for comparison to RNA interference (RNAi) and immune system function was clear in:
…plants alter microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in response to light transition.
Across kingdom connections from the immune system were clear in:
The fact that MicroRNAs regulate APOBEC gene expression to reduce mutagenesis was clear on 6/12/17
In this review, we highlight how microRNAs interact with the APOBEC gene family and post-transcriptionally regulate APOBEC gene expression, and we speculate how targeting specific microRNAs may reduce host genome mutagenesis via inactivation of APOBEC deaminases.
…conserved miRNAs reflect survival adaptations by marine periwinkles under anoxic or frozen conditions…
A link from marine invertebrates to terrestrial vertebrates was published as:
The ability of the painted turtle to withstand complete anoxia and partial freezing appears to be associated with common vertebrate gene networks
Do you believe that life evolved from its persistence in marine sediments that are more than 100 million years old to its existence in snails and turtles?
Our results suggest that microbial communities widely distributed in organic-poor abyssal sediment consist mainly of aerobes that retain their metabolic potential under extremely low-energy conditions for up to 101.5 Ma.
If you believe this pseudoscientific nonsense, you are less likely to believe that pathway analysis of miRNA-related stress survival adaptations, such as cell proliferation in snails, was linked to gene expression by seven hepatopancreas miRNAs. The seven microRNAs were critical to distinguish between snails under different stress conditions, which suggests that all studies of nutrient-dependent pheromone-regulated genetic processes have demonstrated that conserved miRNAs reflect survival adaptations.