Summary: Complexity does not emerge.Top-down causation is energy-dependent. Geoge FR Ellis, who co-authored The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (1973) with physicist Stephen Hawking, just refuted every aspect of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense and Big Bang cosmology by linking the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to the complex metabolic regulatory networks of cellular function.
Focusing on the energy, matter, and thermodynamic imbalances provided by the environment, Schrödinger proposed that life required the consumption of negative entropy, that is, the use of thermodynamic imbalances in the environment. From the perspective of thermodynamics, each bacterium can be viewed as a complex system that is composed of an “engine” that uses imbalances in the environment to do work, and a “machine” that uses this energy (to act against the natural course of entropy increase) for the synthesis of organic substances.13
The complexities of biosynthesis are beyond the ability of most people to examine or attempt to understand. Few polymaths engage in discussions with theorists, and that’s a problem.
I contradict myself (2013)
Maybe part of our problem is that we don’t actually want to talk to the voice of Everything, because Everything has gotten so unfathomably huge. George Fox, the founder of Quakerism, didn’t have to think about light years, let alone billions of light years.
George FR Ellis is (or once was) a Quaker, a polymath, and a co-author of: On the Difference between Physics and Biology: Logical Branching and Biomolecules (2018 with my emphasis)
Because these homeostatic systems in biology have been tuned through the processes of natural selection to operate successfully, they are in general not subject to the instabilities that can plague feedback control systems in general. Energy is of course used in carrying out these logical processes (see Appendix C for energy processes in the brain), and local energy minimisation will occur as part of what is going on (e.g. in the protein folding that converts one-dimensional strings of amino acids to the very complex tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins ). But energy or entropy considerations will not by themselves produce the desired logical structures and operations that enable the function and purpose characteristic of life  to emerge. Actually the necessary energy usage for cellular function is controlled by complex metabolic regulatory networks…
See also: George FR Ellis
He is currently writing on the emergence of complexity, and the way this is enabled by top-down causation in the hierarchy of complexity.
Complexity does not emerge.Top-down causation is energy-dependent. Geoge FR Ellis, who co-authored The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (1973) with physicist Stephen Hawking, just refuted every aspect of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense and Big Bang cosmology by linking the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to the complex metabolic regulatory networks of cellular function.
Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links feedback control systems to protein folding chemistry via RNA-mediated fixation of food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions. The substitutions differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera. Fixation of the amino acid substitutions protects all cell types from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy that links mutations from entropy to all pathology.
Of course, nothing of this is even close to being a theory. But asking questions and shooting such metaphysical hypothesis might lead us closer to the truth and understanding of what consciousness is, where it comes from, and what are the mysteries that hide within light.
The mechanisms that George FR Ellis has linked from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to all biodiversity on Earth are not part of any theory: See: Quantized Energy Links Olfaction from Angstroms to Ecosystems Part 1 Quantized Energy Links Olfaction from Angstroms to Ecosystems Part 2
Light-activated endogenous substrates have been linked from RNA-mediated DNA repair to our socio-cognitive niche construction via the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. It is disingenuous to start with claims from Speculations about Bystander and Biophotons (2014) and fail to mention the established facts that link Schrodinger’s claims in “What is Life” (1944) to the future of biology in the context of Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
It is equally disingenuous for George FR Ellis to place my model of the energy-dependent creation of all biodiversity into the context of his claims about emergence.
In the comments, I wrote:
New data on how genetic predispositions are epigenetically linked to phenotypically distinct neuroanatomy and behaviors is provided in the honeybee model. Across-species comparisons from insects to vertebrates clearly show that the epigenetic influence of food odors and pheromones continues throughout the life of organisms that collectively survive whereas individuals do not. These comparisons also attest to the relative salience of sensory input from the rearing environment. For example, when viewed from the consistency of animal models and conditioned behaviors, food odors are obviously more important to food selection than is our visual perception of food. Animal models affirm that food odor makes food either appealing or unappealing. Animal models reaffirm that it is the pheromones of other animals that makes them either appealing or unappealing.
Socioaffective neuroscience and psychology may progress more quickly by keeping these apparent facts in mind: Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000).”
— Kohl, JV (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24693349
George FR Ellis responded:
This is absolutely correct and forms part of the larger concept that top-down causation is a key factor not just in the way the brain works but in broader contexts in biology and even physics. This is explored here: http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/2/1.toc
After he validated my model on 25 Apr 2014, Ellis wrote another book. How Can Physics Underlie the Mind? Top-Down Causation in the Human Context (2016)
Others linked the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
Ellis comments on at least one of Schrodinger’s claims from “What is Life?” but he largely ignores the energy-dependent links from ecological variation to ecological adaptation that also were reported in two recent publications. See: “Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA” and “Epigenetics and Genetics of Viral Latency.”
Ellis cannot be held accountable for not knowing the most recent work (May 11, 2016) reported that “…viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…”
However, it seems inappropriate for anyone whose opinions are held in high regard to ignore everything else that is known about energy-dependent RNA methylation and the biophysically constrained morphological and behavioral diversity of all living genera. Experimental evidence has established facts that are being used to link the Precision Medicine Initiative to the National Microbiome Initiative via attempts to crack the olfactory code.
When researchers report the direct link from energy-dependent RNA methylation to differences in behavior, this book will be compared to Masatoshi Nei’s “Mutation-driven evolution.” The biggest difference between the two seems to be that Ellis tries to link emergence to evolution via Darwin’s “conditions of life.”
But he now bears the burden of the report in “Science” of nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled weekend evolution of the bacterial flagellum: “Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system.”
The “resurrection” is obviously energy-dependent and it also links the innate immune system to biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect in species from microbes to humans via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. Resurrecting Darwin’s “conditions of life” after they were ignored by neo-Darwinists for many decades should not be attempted by physicists, cosmologists, or biologically uninformed theorists from any other discipline without first learning more about what is known about the RNA-mediated links from physics and chemistry to molecular epigenetics.
Re: the direct link from energy-dependent RNA methylation to differences in behavior
…we demonstrate an endogenous target-RNA-directed miRNA degradation event and its requirement for animal behavior.
Theorists may still make claims about emergence and natural selection for increasing energy-dependent organismal complexity, but if George FR Ellis continues to do so, he should be forced to retract any claims he has made since the time he validated my model. Others should acquire the cell biology game “Cytosis” and learn how to protect their organized genomes from viruses.