Scientists develop atomic-scale hardware to implement natural computing

Excerpt 1)

…an atomic switch network that is in many ways similar to a brain or other natural or cognitive computing device.

Excerpt 2)

We plan to move towards a hybrid morphic system using the best of conventional computation with our brain-like device capabilities, and to develop a new form of programming that relies on distributed memory and synaptic networks,” Gimzewski said.

My comment: Brain-like device capabilities require a link from entropic elasticity to epistasis. “Natural computing” in all cell of all individuals of all genera is nutrient-dependent. Biodiversity is controlled by the physiology of reproduction, which enables fixation of the amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types.

The light-induced de novo creation of amino acids links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that are fixed in organized genomes via the physiology of reproduction. Fixation links atoms to ecosystems in the context of natural computing in all cells. See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems see also: Search Results for ‘Phosphorylation’

A “leap of faith” in theories about evolution is required to get from atoms to ecosystems by those who do not believe in what serious scientists understand. See: A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution


We cannot conceive of a global external factor that could cause, during this time, parallel evolution of amino acid compositions of proteins in 15 diverse taxa that represent all three domains of life and span a wide range of lifestyles and environments. Thus, currently, the most plausible hypothesis is that we are observing a universal, intrinsic trend that emerged before the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms.

My comment: The missing global external factor that could link amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in all genera is ignored. The ignorance of theorists leads to this report of a missing link that does not link anything to anything else known to serious scientists. The report simply attests to the simple-minded theory that organisms evolve and species evolve from other species during millions of years of ecological adaptations or the four days it took to re-evolve the bacterial flagellum.

Missing link in the evolution of complex cells discovered


The study provides a new understanding of how, billions of years ago, the complex cell types that comprise plants, fungi, but also animals and humans, evolved from simple microbes.

My comment: The report on this study tries to place everything currently known about the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent protein biosynthesis and degradation into the context of evolution. It does not addressing the fact that fixation of the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, which differentiate the cell types of all genera must occur via the physiology of their reproduction. Theorists invent a missing link and claim to have discovered it as if everyone knew that cell types automagically evolve and become multicellular organisms. Theorists ignore the fact that serious scientists understand the role that phosphorylation plays in the fixation of amino acid substitutions in organized genomes. I provided a link to this brief lecture on phosphorylation.

Note: Dr. Fischer mentions the fact that filter paper contaminated by calcium ions led to misinterpretation of results that have since become critical to the understanding of cell type differentiation.

Why do evolutionary theorists think they can continue to ignore every aspect of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation and continue to claim that mutations lead to evolution? See also the Special Issue on Nutritional Epigenetics in “Nutrients.” Authors attempt to address what is currently known about the epigenetic links from metabolic networks to genetic networks outside the context of the physiology of reproduction and fixation of amino acids substitutions by phosphorylation. Four open-access articles exemplify the “flailing about” of theorists who fail to link their findings to the findings of anyone else from any other discipline.

What Do Studies of Insect Polyphenisms Tell Us about Nutritionally-Triggered Epigenomic Changes and Their Consequences?

Nutrients Intake Is Associated with DNA Methylation of Candidate Inflammatory Genes in a Population of Obese Subjects

Insights from Space: Potential Role of Diet in the Spatial Organization of Chromosomes

The Interaction between Epigenetics, Nutrition and the Development of Cancer

See also: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.

Publication led to the request from the editors of the special edition on nutritional epigenetics. They invited me to submit this review: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems.  I have not found any original claims in the articles they published, long after my invited submission was returned “without review.”


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