Excerpt from the editor’s summary:
Despite differences in the rates of exposure to specific viruses, the antibody responses in most individuals targeted the same viral epitopes.
My comment: Received: Fri, 05 Jun 2015 14:19:20 -0400
From an even broader perspective, this may be a step forward towards linking viruses and viral microRNAs to entropic elasticity and the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent microRNAs to cell type differentiation via the physiology of reproduction.
For example, the physiology of reproduction appears to enable the fixation of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all genera. That explains how nutritional epigenetics and pharmacogenomics are linked from metabolic networks and genetic networks to healthy longevity or pathology in the context of precision medicine. Doesn’t it?
The collection of viruses found to infect humans can have profound effects on human health. In addition to directly causing acute or chronic illness, viral infection can alter host immunity in more subtle ways, leaving an indelible footprint on the immune system. This interplay between virome and host immunity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and asthma.
Despite the growing appreciation for the importance of interactions between the virome and host, a comprehensive method to systematically characterize these interactions has yet to be developed.
VirScan is a method that enables human virome-wide exploration, at the epitope level, of immune responses in large numbers of individuals. Authors have demonstrated its effectiveness for determining viral exposure and characterizing viral B cell epitopes in high throughput and at high resolution.
Their preliminary studies have revealed intriguing general properties of the human immune system, both at the individual and the population scale.
My comment: Re: the “intriguing general properties of the human immune system, both at the individual and the population scale. The general properties of the immune system link nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the stability of organized genomes in all cell types of all individuals of all species via the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding during thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation. Epistasis is perturbed by viruses, which is why the viruses are linked to pathology. They are not linked to beneficial mutations because there is no such thing as a pathological benefit.