“In biology, as we’ve been trying to do genetic and biological engineering, we’re frustrated by the fact that . . . evolution has given us a real mess—it’s really just bubble gum and sticks, piecing together whatever works,” said biomedical engineer Chris Voigt of MIT who was not involved in the study. “This [work] is one of the first attempts at a grand scale to go in and try to clean up some of the mess . . . so that we can better understand the genetics.”
Some of these genes of unknown function appear to be conserved in higher eukaryotes, said Hutchison. “Those, in a way, are the most exciting,” he said, “because they might represent some new undescribed function that has spread through other life forms.”
My comment (to The Scientist):
Their work appears to recapitulate what was reported in the context of Dobzhansky’s claims in 1964 and also in 1973.
1964: Ingram and others found that hemoglobin S differs from A in the substitution of just a single amino acid, valine in place of glutamic acid in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule.
1973: “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.”
These works link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair and they were placed into the context of “Combating Evolution to Fight Disease” — Rosenberg and Queitsch (2014)
Excerpt: “The evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky famously noted that “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution,” but perhaps, too, “nothing in evolution makes sense except in the light of biology.” Although the latter might be an exaggeration, an important gap is being filled by molecular understanding of the genesis of variation that confers the ability to evolve.”
Note: I’m in danger of being banned from commenting to “The Scientist” because of my past claims about the failure to report what is known about the innate immune system in the context of their focus on neo-Darwinian theories.
See also: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA The ability to adapt is nutrient-dependent and controlled by pheromones in species from microbes to humans. That fact is a neo-Darwinian theory killer and Vetner’s group provided more ammunition for others who have already linked atoms to ecosystems in the context of supercoiled DNA, which protects organized genomes from entropy via the innate immune system.
My comment: The genes that support the nutrient-dependent innate immune system function of all cells and all cell types in all individuals of all living genera must be conserved in the context of the physiology of reproduction. In species from microbes to humans, gene expression is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. The function of the innate immune system links metabolic networks and genetic networks in all living genera via supercoiled DNA, which protects organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
My comment: The innate immune system turns most viruses into lurkers by preventing stress-induced changes in pH from enabling more virus-driven energy theft. Neo-Darwinian theorists failed to look for viruses in our DNA. They simply attributed all pathology to mutations in the context of de Vries 1904 definition and their assumptions about how long it would take for accumulated mutations to create a new species via natural selection. They didn’t realize that Dobzhasnky’s creationist claim about the “light of evolution” was based on Schrodinger’s claim about the anti-entropic energy of sunlight. (1944)
Thanks for placing Ingram’s work into the context of what is currently known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
Dobzhansky (1973) did that, and was virtually ignored when he wrote:
“…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.”
Note: If you are like other biologically uniformed neo-Darwinian theorists, this is your wake up call. Stop dreaming about the magic of mutations and evolution and start to tether your ridiculous theories to what is neuroscientifically known. Virus-driven energy theft is the source of all pathology, which is why viruses are now being linked from mutations to all pathology. No serious scientist has ever linked viruses from mutations to healthy longevity and neo-Darwinian evolution. Serious scientists start with Darwin’s “conditions of life.”