Cytosis is a [energy-dependent] transport mechanism for the movement of large quantities of molecules into and out of cells.

There are three main types of cytosis: endocytosis (into the cell), exocytosis (out of the cell), and transcytosis (through the cell, in and out).

See also: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game 3/27/17

See also: Cytosis: Biology Content 4/4/17

Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game  4/12/17

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Backers: 5,918
Funding: $339,165 pledged of $14,500 goal

Dates: Mar 14th -> Apr 14th (31 days)

Project By: John Coveyou (Genius Games)

See also: Convergent evolution of SWS2 opsin facilitates adaptive radiation of threespine stickleback into different light environments

Reported as: Distantly related fish find same evolutionary solution to dark water

  1.  …mechanisms of adaptive evolution may be more predictable than previously suspected.
  2.  Amino acid changes in SWS2 have been previously shown to “tune” this opsin to make it more sensitive to either the blue or red end of the spectrum.
  3. “These data support the emerging view in evolutionary biology that mechanisms underlying adaptive evolution are often highly repeatable and thus may be predictable,” said Marques.

Conserved molecular mechanisms link light to the nutrient energy-dependent biophysically constrained physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. The fixation of energy-dependent amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA biophysically constrains virus-driven energy theft, which links the degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology.

See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

See also: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)

An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively fit individuals across species of vertebrates.

Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

Unless reviewers are convinced your claims fit into the context of mutation-driven evolution, works like this do not get published. So, I lied about the “evolved” environmental “drive.” The model linked ecological variation from what organisms eat to ecological adaptation via the biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. The model refutes the pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and evolution.

See also this invited review of nutritional epigenetics, which was returned without review. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

Abstract excerpt:

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.

See for comparison: Landscape of histone modifications in a sponge reveals the origin of animal cis-regulatory complexity

Reported as: Humans and sponges share gene regulation

  1. “The research implies this complex mechanism was present at the evolutionary dawn of multicellular animals and across animal species as far apart as sponges and humans,” Dr Tanurdzic said.
  2. “Until very recently we thought increasing complexity in the animal kingdom was due to an ever-increasing number of genes that encode information about animal development and growth.
  3. “As the common ancestor of humans and sponges probably lived 700 million years ago, this implies that gene regulatory complexity relying on histone marks was fundamental for the evolution of animal multicellularity and diverse animal forms and functions.”

No serious scientist since Thomas Hunt Morgan ever thought that an ever-increasing number of genes was required to link the physiology of reproduction to chromosomal inheritance, which biophysically constrains the nutrient energy-dependent transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of virus-driven pathology.

Theories about the increasing number of genes were debunked with claims that there must be an anti-entropic source of energy that linked changes in base pairs from single nucleotide polymorphisms to energy-dependent codon optimality via what organisms eat and the physiology of their pheromone-controlled reproduction. Serious scientists linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems before they politely started to ridicule the neo-Dawinian theorists and theoretical physicists.

See:

See also:

Published on 15 Feb 2017

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes.For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution.

The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

All serious scientists know that pseudoscientists want to believe that mutations can be linked to increasing organismal complexity. See for example: Mutation-Driven Evolution

Conclusion:

…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world. In this view of evolution there is no need of considering teleological elements” (p. 199).

Does anyone still thinks that any view of evolution does not require consideration of teleological elements, which link energy-dependent changes from the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to purposeful design and final causes in the context of healthy longevity or virus-driven pathology? If so, they must be a biologically uninformed theorist who refuses to inform themself or learn from those who have linked microRNAs to all biophysically constrained biodiversity or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.

See: microRNA

For example: Cell-Cycle-Targeting MicroRNAs as Therapeutic Tools against Refractory Cancers

Our results highlight the utility of using cell-cycle-targeting miRNAs for treatment of refractory cancer types.

For example: Not So Fast: Cultivating miRs as Kinks in the Chain of the Cell Cycle

These miRNAs effectively suppressed chemoresistant patient-derived xenograft growth in vivo, and efficacy could be prospectively predicted with an expression-based algorithm.

The fact that cell cycles are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions no longer seems to be ignored. Indeed, it is beginning to look like there are more serious scientists than pseudoscientists.

That fact helps to explain why the pseudoscientists are so angry.

Why the March for Science Promises to Be So Angry

….the “fake protest” has “devolved into intersectional insanity,” as “Leftist crybullies used their usual tactics to take over…. This is just Gamergate being played out on the level of science,” presided over by “Bill Nye, a guy who says stupid things on TV.”

The crybullies, as he calls them, specialize in anger. Like small children throwing fits, they are liable to lash out physically, as recent incidents on college campuses have shown.

 

 

 

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