Introduction: Energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution have again been linked to hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors by the conserved molecular mechanisms we detailed in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. The practical application of those details has been reported in the context of this article, published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men

Daily Diagnosis is emailed each weekday to members of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

Information about the Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men was reported in “ASCP Daily Diagnosis” as:

Testosterone Replacement Gel May Provide Some Benefits To Older Men With Low Testosterone, Study Suggests.

Excerpts:

The AP (2/17, Tanner):  … finding mostly modest improvement in the sex lives, walking strength and mood of a select group of older men.

NBC News (2/17, Fox, Derenowski, Costello)  …points out that that findings “are expected later from four other related studies, which tested the hormone’s effects on mental function, bone density, heart function and anemia.”

See also the reports from the New York Times (2/18, A17, Kolata, Subscription Publication), Forbes (2/17, Weintraub), Medscape (2/17, Tucker), HealthDay (2/17, Thompson), STAT (2/17, Swetlitz), the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (2/17, Templeton), Reuters (2/17, Emery), the Wall Street Journal (2/17, Beck, Subscription Publication), The Oregonian (2/17, Terry), and the NPR (2/17, Streeter) “Shots” blog.

This is “Big Science” that is not placed into any other context whatsoever. See also, from the New England Journal of Medicine:

On Smell.

The sense of smell links energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to testosterone levels during life history transitions in men.

Excerpt:

I should think we might fairly gauge the future of biological science, centuries ahead by estimating the time it will take to reach a complete comprehensive understanding of odor. It may not seem a profound enough problem to dominate all the life sciences, but it contains, piece by piece, all the mysteries” (p. 732).  — Lewis Thomas (as cited in The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality).

My comment: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the link from the sense of smell to testosterone during life history transitions.

See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Excerpt:

For instance, Jakacki, Kelch, Sauder, Lloyd, Hopwood, and Marshall (1982) have shown that prepubertal children secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) and presumably gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a pulsatile manner, well before physical evidence of sexual maturation is apparent. Since the neuroendocrine mechanisms for the control both of gonadal and, in part, of adrenal steroidogenesis are active, if the Gd–H–B model is influenced by social-environmental sensory stimuli before puberty occurs, such stimuli also would be capable of influencing long-term behavior.

Cited in: Testosterone in utero and at birth dictates how stressful experience will affect learning in adulthood

Excerpt:

…the absence of testosterone shortly after birth organizes the ability to acquire trace memories in adulthood and dictates its modulation by stressful experience in females. These effects are generally consistent with those of sexual behaviors, which become masculinized by exposure to testosterone in utero and feminized by its absence shortly after birth (3, 9, 33, 34). Our data suggest that sexually dimorphic effects of emotional experience on cognitive behaviors in adulthood are similarly organized by a relatively brief exposure to testosterone during development.

See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005)

Excerpt:

Indications that GnRH peptide plays an important role in the control of sexual behaviors suggest that pheromone effects on these behaviors might also involve GnRH neurons.  (p 683)

My comment: Additional findings that support claims about how nutrient energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution are linked from RNA-mediated events to the pheromone-controlled physiology of nematodes and ecological adaptation during life history transitions in humans are included in the reports linked here:

Distinct Circuits for the Formation and Retrieval of an Imprinted Olfactory Memory

System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes

Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity

Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress

The Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)-Like Molecule in Prosobranch Patella caerulea: Potential Biomarker of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Marine Environments

Cytogenetic approaches for determining ecological stress in aquatic and terrestrial biosystems

Summary: The benefits of testosterone therapy for those who are deficient have been placed into a model of biologically-based cause and effect of hormones linked to behavior. The hormones that affect behavior link physics and chemistry to every aspect of metabolic networks and genetic networks that has ever been linked to the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

See for comparison: Mutation-Driven Evolution

Conclusion:

… genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world. In this view of evolution there is no need of considering teleological elements, (p. 199).

My comment: The likelihood that anyone  who touts links from constraint-breaking mutations to biodiversity will “… fairly gauge the future of biological science, centuries ahead by estimating the time it will take to reach a complete comprehensive understanding…” can be compared to facts that link “…the future of biological science, centuries ahead…” to what is currently understood about the links from food odors and pheromones to the physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates and invertebrates. The food odors and pheromones link metabolic networks to genetic networks via RNA-mediated events linked to supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy. The organized genomes are exemplified in the morphological phenotypes and the behavioral phenotypes of all living genera.

See for example: The Genetics of Society

Excerpt:

For the first time, scientists are investigating the molecules that underlie eusocial behavior at a depth that was previously unimaginable. New, affordable sequencing technologies enable scientists to examine how genes across the entire genome are regulated to generate different caste phenotypes, the roles of DNA methylation and microRNAs in this differential expression, and what proteins are synthesized as a result.

My comment: The molecules that underlie all behavior have already been linked from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution via the role that microRNAs play in RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links alternative splicings of pre-mRNA (the microRNAs) to cell type differentiation in all genera via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, DNA methylation, the creation of adhesion proteins and the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled creation and stability of supercoiled DNA.

See also:  Organizational and activational effects of hormones on insect behavior

Excerpt:

Effects of hormones on brain and behavior occur through three mechanisms: (1) behaviors both organized and activated by hormones, (2) behaviors only organized by hormones, and (3) behaviors only activated by hormones (reviewed in Arnold and Breedlove, 1985; Diamond et al., 1996).”

My comment: Although Gene Robinson cited our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review in the article he co-authored with Elekonich, neither of them has since acknowledged the basis for any of their subsequent claims. Gene Robinson has proceeded to tout the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinism at a time when others are trying to eliminate it from any further consideration whatsoever.

See: Molecular evolutionary analyses of insect societies

Excerpt:

Our bee molecular evolution study revealed that genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism are evolving more rapidly in eusocial relative to noneusocial bee lineages and are evolving most rapidly in highly eusocial lineages (21).

My comment: Molecules do not evolve. Hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution links energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in all vertebrates and invertebrates. Eusocial lineages do not evolve. Organisms and species adapt via the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans via the conserved molecular mechanisms we detailed in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 review. That fact shows why the vision Sir Paul Nurse has for the Crick Institute will be skewed by the facts about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

See: Vision for the Crick Institute

…you can’t force people to work together, and just putting them in the same room doesn’t mean that is going to happen.

My comment: Gene Robinson, and many others, have pitted themselves against those who have been Combating Evolution to Fight Disease and those who have linked angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA.

The vision for the Crick Institute requires cooperation among those who link RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression; RNA-mediated gene silencing, RNA-mediated toxicity, RNA-mediated epigenetic heredity, via nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation to life history transitions in levels of testosterone and behavior via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.

For example, see:

Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults

Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity

In the context of Combating Evolution to Fight Disease, especially age-related diseases that link epigenetic effects on hormones to the affects of hormones on behavior via COMT Val158Met or BDNF Val66Met, if you cannot accept the fact that energy-dependent base pair changes link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to all biodiversity, you should not consider trying to explain top-down causation to a serious scientist.

 

 

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