Cells routinely sense and respond to their environment, and they also communicate with each other. Exactly how communication impacts sensing remains poorly understood. We study a population of fibroblast cells that responds to a chemical stimulus (ATP) and communicates by molecule exchange. Combining experiments and mathematical modeling, we find that cells exhibit calcium oscillations in response to not only the ATP stimulus but also, increased cell–cell communication. Our results show that, when cells are together, their sensory responses reflect not just the stimulus level but also, the degree of communication within the population.
In light of these developments, our results suggest that cell density, via gap junctional communication and nonlinear signaling dynamics, can impact cellular function, similar to so-called dynamical quorum sensing (46–48).
Quorum sensing is nutrient energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled via epigenetic links to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation in all living genera. They link energy-dependent cellular communication in all living genera to the ability of a baseball player to hit a pitch via links to the de novo creation of photoceptors. The creation of all receptors is energy-dependent and occurs only in the context of the creation of odor receptors.
Their results can be placed into the context of the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which links chemotaxis and phototaxis to energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect. In that context, virus-driven energy theft links mutations to all pathology.
They have killed all neo-Darwinian theories with experimental evidence that links Einstein’s math to Schrodinger’s physics and Dobzhansky’s claims about amino acid substitutions. RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link chemotaxis and phototaxis to energy-dependent fixation of cell type differences in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera.
His lab experience with protein folds leads him to the empirically supported conclusion that the sequence space for proteins (and the genes that encode them) is so fantastically large that blind search is hopelessly inadequate to find the good variants. And since natural selection cannot invent things, that’s all it has to work with. Remember, mutations are random. Finding good mutations is far less probable in a blind search than throwing a dart blindfolded from space and hitting a pre-specified target one millimeter in diameter. When the search space is “fantastically large,” adding more darts won’t help. You run into physical limits of time and energy cost.
The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.
… viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…
The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light (UV) links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.