In the early 1990’s, Bruce McEwen inspired my life’s works, which link the epigenetic effects of nutrient-stress and/or social stress to the fact that RNA biosynthesis is ATP-dependent. That fact helped all serious scientists link the virus-driven energy theft of quantized energy to the degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.
Pseudoscientists refuse to accept that fact.
Energy and charge transfer is what drives photosynthesis and any solar-to-chemical or electrical-to-chemical energy conversion.
That fact links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from the de novo creation of microRNAs to all biodiversity. Bruce McEwen published on the role that microRNAs play in: Characterization of the vulnerability to repeated stress in Fischer 344 rats: possible involvement of microRNA-mediated down-regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor (2008)
We also identified that microRNA (miR)-18a inhibited translation of GR mRNA in cultured neuronal cells and that increased expression of miR-18a in the PVN was observed in F344 rats compared with SD rats. These strain differences in GR protein levels were not found in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and the expression of miR-18a was much lower in these brain regions than in the PVN. Our results suggest that F344 rats could be a useful animal model for studying vulnerability to repeated stress, and that miR-18a-mediated down-regulation of GR translation may be an important factor to be considered in susceptibility to stress-related disorders.
Expression analyses of mRNAs of RE-1-containing genes and brain-enriched pre-microRNAs in the mPFC of the maternally separated rats. A, B, The expression of mRNAs (A) and pre-microRNAs (B) of a variety of RE-1-containing genes in the mPFC of AFR, HMS15, and HMS180 rats at P14 were quantified by Q-PCR (n = 6 for all groups). C, D, The expression of mature microRNAs in the mPFC of AFR, HMS15, and HMS180 rats at P14 were quantified by Northern blotting analysis (n = 5–6 for each group). E, The mRNA and pre-microRNA expression of RE-1-containing genes in the mPFC of adult AFR, HMS15, and HMS180 rats were quantified by Q-PCR (n = 6 for all groups). *p < 0.05.
Bruce McEwen subsequently linked what is known about energy-dependent changes in single nucleotide polymorphisms to effects of hormones on behavior in mice and humans via a food energy-dependent biophysically constrained amino acid substitution.
Excitatory amino acids play a key role in both adaptive and deleterious effects of stressors on the brain, and dysregulated glutamate homeostasis has been associated with psychiatric and neurological disorders. Here, we elucidate mechanisms of epigenetic plasticity… In WT mice after CRS and in unstressed mice with a BDNF loss-of-function allele (BDNF Val66Met), we show that the epigenetic activator of histone acetylation, P300, plays a pivotal role in the dynamic up- and down-regulation of mGlu2 in hippocampus via histone-3-lysine-27-acetylation (H3K27Ac) when acute stressors are applied. These hippocampal responses reveal a window of epigenetic plasticity that may be useful for treatment of disorders in which glutamatergic transmission is dysregulated.
See also: Multiplexed gene control reveals rapid mRNA turnover (open access)
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.
The fact that some researchers still do not know that the synthesis of RNA is energy-dependent makes it impossible for them to link virus-driven energy theft from the degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology in all living genera.
It will soon become “child’s play” for anyone over 10 years old. See: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game
A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!