Thanks for the Stress, Dad

As embryos, the researchers found that the mouse offspring, which exhibited more anxious behavior than usual, also had lower miRNA levels, as did the sperm of the male offspring upon maturity.

The stress-linked degradation of messenger RNA is caused by virus-driven energy theft, which has been linked to all pathology in species from bacteria to humans.  For example:

Neutrons identify critical details in bacterial enzyme implicated in gastric cancer

Ronning’s team focused on H. pylori’s use of a unique biosynthetic pathway to synthesize vitamin K2, which aids in the electron transfer processes, or chemical reactions, of all organisms.

They linked the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the creation of microRNAs and enzymes to food energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency via the same model I used to link angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera.

Neutron structures of the Helicobacter pylori 5′-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase highlight proton sharing and protonation states

Although an increase in the distance between the hydrogen-bond acceptor and donor was not observed, the new proton position disrupts the hydrogen-bond interaction with Oδ2 of E175 that is observed in all other neutron structures. The new orientation of the deuterium atom for the O3′ hydroxyl allows a new O-D⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen-bond interaction to form with the O2′ hydroxyl at a distance of 2.1 Å. The O-D⋅⋅⋅Oδ2 hydrogen-bond interaction between the O3′ hydroxyl and the carboxylate side chain of E175 was shown to be essential for the catalytic reaction, because the removal of the O3′ hydroxyl from the ribose moiety and the use of E175 EcMTAN variants eliminate catalytic activity (6, 9). Based on these results, it has been proposed that the O3′ hydroxyl becomes ionized during the formation of the transition state to assist in stabilizing the oxocarbenium ion intermediate (11, 32), but the neutron structures presented here demonstrate a protonated O3′ hydroxyl and a fully deprotonated E175 carboxylate.

Simply put, they start with the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic thermonuclear virucidal energy and link it from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA in the context of the physiology of reproduction, which biophysically constrains the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all pathology until the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links genetic predispositions from mutations to disease.

See also: miR494 inhibits cancer-initiating cell phenotypes and reverses resistance to lapatinib by downregulating FGFR2 in HER2positive gastric cancer

First Detailed Anatomical Study of Bonobos Reveals Intra-Specific Variations and Exposes Just-So Stories of Human Evolution, Bipedalism, and Tool Use

Here I show how many of these stories now become obsolete, after such a comprehensive knowledge on the anatomy of bonobos and other primates is finally put together. Each and every muscle that has been long accepted to be ‘uniquely human’ and to provide ‘crucial singular functional adaptations’ for our bipedalism, tool use and/or vocal/facial communication, is actually present as an intra-specific variant or even as normal phenotype in bonobos and/or other apes.

Reported as: ‘Uniquely human’ muscles have been discovered in apes

“Most theories of human evolution give the impression that humans are markedly distinct from apes anatomically, but these are unverifiable ‘just-so stories’.

See also: Differential Expression of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancers from Four Different Ethnicities

The microRNA-mediated interspecies variant and intra-specific variants are proof of sympatric speciation. All the variants are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

From 2014: Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience

This article is part of the Research Topic

What determines social behavior? Investigating the role of emotions, self-centered motives, and social norms.

We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

See the comments section:

9 Comments – James Vaughn Kohl and George F R Ellis.

James Vaughn Kohl “New data on how genetic predispositions are epigenetically linked to phenotypically distinct neuroanatomy and behaviors is provided in the honeybee model. Across-species comparisons from insects to vertebrates clearly show that the epigenetic influence of food odors and pheromones continues throughout the life of organisms that collectively survive whereas individuals do not. These comparisons also attest to the relative salience of sensory input from the rearing environment. For example, when viewed from the consistency of animal models and conditioned behaviors, food odors are obviously more important to food selection than is our visual perception of food. Animal models affirm that food odor makes food either appealing or unappealing. Animal models reaffirm that it is the pheromones of other animals that makes them either appealing or unappealing.

Socioaffective neuroscience and psychology may progress more quickly by keeping these apparent facts in mind: Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000).”

— Kohl, JV (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24693349

  • 17 Apr 2014 at 03:07am

George F R Ellis This is absolutely correct and forms part of the larger concept that top-down causation is a key factor not just in the way the brain works but in broader contexts in biology and even physics. This is explored here: http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/2/1.toc

  • 25 Apr 2014 at 07:49am

James Vaughn Kohl Thanks for commenting and calling attention to the background work that many seem to have missed.

To what should we attribute the failure of evolutionary theorists to consider the role of physics and chemistry in the molecular biology that links morphological and behavioral phenotypes in species from microbes to man via conserved molecular mechanisms, which link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in all organized genomes? Are the scientific facts too difficult to grasp, or are they simply being ignored?

Note, some discussion of where your efforts have led occurred here: ‘A Challenge to the Supremacy of DNA as the Genetic Material’ after Ricki Lewis noticed the publication by Annila and Baverstock: http://blogs.plos.org/dnascience/2014/03/20/challenge-supremacy-dna-genetic-material/

Clearly, however, we have evidence in that discussion and many other discussions that theorists would rather avoid learning anything new than acknowledge the recent assertion that: “If you learnt evolutionary biology and genetics a decade or more ago you need to be aware that those debates have moved on very considerably, as has the experimental and field work on which they are based.” http://jp.physoc.org/content/589/5/1007.abstract

  • 25 Apr 2014 at 12:51pm

George F R Ellis Denis Noble has written some excellent material along these lines, see http://www.musicoflife.co.uk/ (both the book, and the discussions there where he answers his critics) as well as that article

  • 25 Apr 2014 at 04:20pm

James Vaughn Kohl Thanks again. Timothy W. Bredy’s group just made a giant step forward from ‘Dynamic DNA methylation: a prime candidate for genomic metaplasticity and behavioral adaptation’ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23041052

With publication of ‘Neocortical Tet3-mediated accumulation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine promotes rapid behavioral adaptation’ http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/04/22/1318906111.abstract they bring to bear what is currently known by you and others, like Denis Noble, about biophysical constraints on ecological adaptation. The constraints have been ignored by theorists who seem not to realize that the ‘music of life’ is nutrient-dependent. There is no orchestration by mutations — despite the claims of theorists.

For those who have not followed the information on Tet-mediated changes in cell types associated with 5 hmcs, cell type differentiation is clearly nutrient-dependent, which means that species diversity is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.

For those who have followed the information on Tet-mediated changes, you may want to see “A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23206328

I mention that since no one would review my 3/13/14 submission on nutritional epigenetics — even though it was an invited review based on my publication last year of ‘Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model’ http://www.socioaffectiveneuroscipsychol.net/index.php/snp/article/view/20553/27989

  • 29 Apr 2014 at 12:30pm

George F R Ellis Great links, thanks. I’m intrigued by your work on pheromones. It is just possible it might relate to the issue of primordial emotional systems, see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3540967/

  • 30 Apr 2014 at 06:11am

James Vaughn Kohl It’s interesting to look at how our works fit, which they must do if our findings correctly represent biophysically constrained ecological adaptations manifested in morphological and behavioral phenotypes. Others are quickly eliminating any perceived incongruities. For example, see: Maternal nutrition at conception modulates DNA methylation of human metastable epialleles http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4746. This takes physics and chemistry to the one-carbon metabolism level of DNA methylation, which links ecological variation to ecological adaptations via micronutrients and macronutrients.

Since you are familiar with Panksepp’s works, I will note that my group won the seminal award in 2001 that his group won in 2002 . See Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11600881 and Comparative approaches in evolutionary psychology: molecular neuroscience meets the mind http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12496741. Evolutionary theorists have since ignored or denied the role of nutrient-dependent species-specific pheromone production, which controls the physiology of reproduction, and continued to tout their ideas about mutations, natural selection and evolution.

Here we are more than a decade later and others are just now learning that the molecular mechanisms of signaling and sensing are conserved across species from yeasts to humans, which means the conserved molecular mechanisms must be the basis for emotional systems. At least one Nobel Laureate already has attested to that fact. See Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16290036. “Indications that GnRH peptide plays an important role in the control of sexual behaviors suggest that pheromone effects on these behaviors might also involve GnRH neurons.” (p 683).

Start with yeasts: Signaling Crosstalk: Integrating Nutrient Availability and Sex http://stke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sigtrans;6/291/pe28 The nutrient-dependent production of the alpha mating pheromone exemplifies cell type differentiation at the advent of sexual reproduction, and when concentrated it elicits a luteinizing hormone (LH) response from the cultured pituitary cells of a mammal, the rat.

The mammalian GnRH-directed LH response has been the focus of my works for more than 2 decades since someone told me my mammalian model had to start with gene activation in hormone-secreting nerve cells of the brain. However, in 2010 , Richard Doty published a book an claimed that mammalian pheromones don’t exist. Simply put, they can’t — if you’re a social scientist. See: A Fear of Pheromones http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197108122850708

  • 30 Apr 2014 at 10:00am

James Vaughn Kohl Timothy W. Bredy’s group has done it again. See: Long noncoding RNA-directed epigenetic regulation of gene expression is associated with anxiety-like behavior in mice. http://www.biologicalpsychiatryjournal.com/article/S0006-3223%2815%2900095-5/fulltext

Conclusion: Experience-dependent expression of lncRNAs plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of adaptive behavior, and the perturbation of Gomafu may be related to anxiety and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders.

The most obvious correlation with what is now being discussed in the context of top-down causation and 4-D genome make-up that changes during life history transistions is: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-014-0895-5

It shows the difference that a single amino acid substitution can make during experience-dependent RNA-mediated life history transitions that link metabolic networks to genetic networks.

  • 25 Feb 2015 at 08:03pm

James Vaughn Kohl Experience-Dependent Accumulation of N6-Methyladenosine in the Prefrontal Cortex Is Associated with Memory Processes in Mice http://www.jneurosci.org/content/36/25/6771.abstract

The link from energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to learning and memory may be the final example of top-down causation that is required to link angstroms to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction and behavior in all living genera.

Their experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect appears to link the innate immune system to protection of all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy in the context of the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding during life history transitions.

  • 27 Jun 2016 at 09:12am

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