Excerpt: The perception of time thus varies between people and may depend at least in part on personality. These results open up a new avenue for studying and manipulating how we process social situations. This could eventually benefit people who struggle with social interactions, such as those with autism spectrum disorders.
Link opens the pdf: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
In physics, space-time is warped by the distribution of mass and energy in it (Hwaking 1988). Our findings, along with others (Johnston et al. 2006; Xuan et al. 2007; Wang and Jiang 2012; Mayo and Sommer 2013), suggest a parallel in the perception of time––subjective time is “warped” by the neural energy involved in representing multisensory inputs at subsecond scales.
The “…neural energy involved in representing multisensory inputs at subsecond scales” links our visual perception of energy and mass from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria to the spatiotemporal regulation of RNA-directed transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in all living genera.
…perceived time, rather than being a faithful representation of physical time, is highly idiosyncratic and ingrained with one’s personality trait.
Einstein once joked: “Put your hand on a hot stove for a minute, and it seems like an hour. Sit with a pretty girl for an hour, and it seems like a minute. That’s relativity.” While it may not have helped explain the space-time continuum, his joke neatly captures how time can appear to pass at different rates. This perception depends in part on the sensory properties of the stimuli we are experiencing. Intense stimuli, such as bright and fast-moving objects, trigger stronger responses in the brain than less intense stimuli, and so we perceive them as longer lasting.
But what role do we, as the experiencers, play in how we perceive time? To find out, Liu, Yuan, Chen et al. showed volunteers pairs of movie clips, each featuring two human figures outlined by dots. In one clip, the two figures interacted socially, for example by passing an object between them. In the other, the two figures moved independently of each other. The volunteers had to decide which clip lasted longer.
The volunteers generally judged clips containing social interactions to be shorter than those without such interactions, even when this was not the case. Moreover, volunteers with better social skills tended to underestimate the length of the social interaction clips to a greater extent.
Previous studies have shown that people who are more social tend to have higher levels of a hormone called oxytocin in their blood. Oxytocin is sometimes referred to as the ‘love hormone’ because it promotes social behavior and bonding. Applying an oxytocin nasal spray to the volunteers who were less socially proficient caused them to perceive the social interaction clips as shorter than before. By contrast, socially proficient volunteers who used a nasal spray that blocks the effects of oxytocin perceived these clips as longer than they had done previously (although they still judged the clips to be shorter than videos that did not show people interacting).
The perception of time thus varies between people and may depend at least in part on personality. These results open up a new avenue for studying and manipulating how we process social situations. This could eventually benefit people who struggle with social interactions, such as those with autism spectrum disorders.
The link to the epigenetic inheritance of personality traits is clear. All traits are energy-dependent, RNA-mediated, and biophysically constrained in the context of a flexible time-space continuum of cell structure and supercoiled DNA.
…the temporal and spatial ordering of liquid droplet organelles may help cells to organize and coordinate the complex RNA processing pathways that underlie gene-regulatory systems, such as RNA-directed transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.
Cell structure is quantized energy-dependent and RNA-mediated in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency. All serious scientists have linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via what organisms eat and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Energy-dependent RNA-directed transgenerational epigenetic inheritance links what organisms eat and the physiology of their pheromone-controlled sympatric speciation from biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity on Earth. Gene-centric theories start with DNA and skip the facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated fixation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera.
This webinar will explore:
- How spatial transcriptomics in individual tissue sections provides access to full-transcriptome data in 2D or 3D
- Practical application and performance of the method in basic and medical research
- How the technology can be used in combination with single-cell sequencing.
For comparison to a representation of gene-centric theories, see this cartoon:
Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.
That claim is ridiculous. Proteins do not evolve. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has been linked from ecological variation to RNA-mediated biophysically constrained ecological adaptations in all living genera. The energy comes from sunlight, which is required for the creation of microRNAs.
…the study shows that the Beijing lineage of TB bacteria spreads more easily from person-to-person than other strains of the bacteria.
What is known to all serious scientists in South Korea about virus-induced virulence in bacteria forced the denuclearization of North Korea. The US Military involvement in Korea and in Vietnam helped link food energy to protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA and all pathology. The God-less Communists now recognize the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA as the biggest threat to their populations.
Serious scientists in Thailand have helped to defeat the God-less Communists via links to the works of scientific creationists in South Korea.