Excerpt 1) The evolutionary origins of viruses and viroids are totally different…”
My comment: How could evolution origins be totally different for anything? Has neo-Darwinian theory changed to allow some organisms to evolve via mutations and some to evolve another way?
Excerpt 2) The ancestors of plants gained the ability to capture sunlight by swallowing up photosynthetic microbes. Dr. Flores speculated that these microbes, called cyanobacteria, may have been ancient hosts for viroids, eventually passing them on to plants.
My comment: How did these anonymous ancestors gain or lose any abilities? Has Dr. Flores considered that there are biophysical constraints on gains and losses? Speculation is like a theory, isn’t it. I can speculate about cause and effect, but can I convince you that experimental evidence supports my speculation?
Excerpt 3) “I wouldn’t be surprised if viroids are found in cyanobacteria,” Dr. Flores said. It would be a remarkable discovery, a link in a chain connecting the food on our tables to the dawn of life.
My comment: Any discovery that links a chain of evolutionary events to anything known about gains and losses of abilities attributed to biologically-based cause and effect would be remarkable. So far, not even one evolutionary event has been described. Thus, linking the dawn of life to the food on our tables via evolutionary theory would represent a quantum leap from a ridiculous theory to what is known about biological facts by serious scientists.
For example, quantum physics is linked to quantum biology via a light-induced amino acid substitution that links cell type differentiation in plants from ecological variation in light-dark cycles to RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. Amino acid substitutions differentiate nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled cell types in all living genera via conserved molecular mechanisms that appear to involve RNA-binding common to viruses. Reporting the link from light in the context of a light-induced genetic mutation puts the evolution of DNA before the RNA-mediated events that lead from nutrient uptake and RNA-mediated events to ecological adaptations manifested as DNA.
Excerpt 4) “RNA can store genetic information, but scientists have discovered that some RNA molecules also carry out chemical reactions. In other words, this single molecule might have been able to handle all the basic tasks required for life. Only later did DNA and proteins evolve.”
My comment: Light-induced amino acid substitutions link ecological variation to RNA-mediated events in plants and animals via differentiation of their cell types. DNA appears to be a nutrient-dependent ecological adaptation. DNA does not appear to have evolved, which suggests proteins did not evolve. That suggests biodiversity did not evolve via mutations and/or natural selection. It attests to the likelihood that biodiversity manifested in the morphological and behavioral diversity of all individuals of all species arises in the context of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated events.
If so, Zimmer’s “Tiny Emissary from the Ancient Past” can be linked from Dobzhansky (1973) “Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution” via “Let there be light” in Biblical Genesis to Francis Collins “The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief” and Dobzhansky’s creationist beliefs.
Except 1) “It is wrong to hold creation and evolution as mutually exclusive alternatives. I am a creationist and an evolutionist.” –“Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution”
Excerpt 2) “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.”–“Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution”
Is Zimmer’s ‘tiny emissary’ an emissary from God who used RNA-mediated events to Create what Collins calls DNA ? He (i.e., Collins) calls DNA the language of God).
My comment: A single amino acid substitutions differentiates new strains of human influenza viruses: “…seasonal flu escapes immunity and develops into new strains typically by just a single amino acid substitution.” However, in the context of facts about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect has linked an evolutionary event from a mutation or from accumulated mutations to the evolution of biodiversity. Thus, theorists should probably temper their ridiculous claims and speculation. They should probably quit talking about Mutation-Driven Evolution or compare what they think to what I detailed about cell type differentiation in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
“Let there be light” is an English translation of the Hebrew יְהִי אוֹר (yehi ‘or). Other translations of the same phrase include the Latin phrase fiat lux, and the Greek phrase γενηθήτω φῶς (or genēthētō phōs). The phrase is often used for its metaphorical meaning of spreading knowledge and dispelling ignorance.
Clearly, nothing about evolution makes sense in the light of what is now known about molecular biology and how RNA-mediated events link amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in species from microbes to man. Perhaps details of these RNA-mediated events can be compared to claims that “…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world.” That claim makes no sense in the light of anything known about physics, chemistry, or the conserved molecular mechanisms of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled amino acid substitutions that link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man. If a claim makes sense to you, try to make sense of it for others who believe in biological facts about RNA-mediated events and biodiversity.
“The evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky famously noted that “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution,” but perhaps, too, “nothing in evolution makes sense except in the light of biology.” Although the latter might be an exaggeration, an important gap is being filled by molecular understanding of the genesis of variation that confers the ability to evolve.” — see my comments here on: Rosenberg and Queitsch (2014)
The molecular understanding of the genesis of variation has shown that nothing confers the ability to evolve. Instead, it has shown that amino acid substitutions link cell type differentiation from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in organized genomes via RNA-mediated events, which have also been called Genome Dynamics Events. However, no matter what the events are called, no one has described an evolutionary event that links biologically-based cause and effect to anything.