Based on his writings, both published and unpublished, James Kohl presents an unsupported challenge to modern evolutionary theory and misrepresentations of established scientific terms and others’ research. — Andrew Jones, BA
The 2013 review article by James Vaughn Kohl published in Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology and criticized in the above Letter to the Editor was subjected to standard peer review and the revised version was accepted by me after it had been accepted by both reviewers.
See for comparison: The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, by Francis S. Collins. The current director of the NIH also is a co-author of Genetic regulatory signatures underlying islet gene expression and type 2 diabetes
…T2D risk alleles that overlap with RFX footprints uniformly disrupt the RFX motifs at high-information content positions. Together, these results suggest that common regulatory variations have shaped islet TF footprints and the transcriptome and that a confluent RFX regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic component of T2D predisposition.
No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect suggest that any common regulatory variations has ever evolved. Let me make that fact perfectly clear in the words of the co-authors:
“Individuals who are heterozygous for a frameshift mutation in RFX6 have increased 2-h glucose levels (33). Importantly, rare autosomal recessive mutations that alter DNA-contacting amino acids in the DNA binding domain of RFX6 result in Mitchell–Riley syndrome, which is characterized by neonatal diabetes (29).
The frameshift mutation and rare autosomal recessive mutations occur outside the context of energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). For comparison RNA-directed DNA methylation (aka endogenous RNAi) typically links DNA-contacting amino acids to healthy longevity via the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phentoypes in species from microbes to humans. It is difficult to describe all the links, but it is clear that RNAi links RNA-directed DNA methylation from energy-dependent changes in chirallity to base pairs, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and autophagy via the innate immune system.
Without any mention of how virus-driven energy theft links mutations from SNPs to pathology, Francis S. Collins and his co-authors link the rare autosomal recessive mutations to altered DNA-contacting amino acids. Apparently, they do not want to mention anything about the fact that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is the link from RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to all biophysically constrained healthy longevity. Instead, they seem willing to ignore the facts about energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in cell types.
Indeed, they seem to put everything known to serious scientists into the context of the theistic evolution of pathology. Serious scientists know that nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation is the link from atoms to ecosystems in models of ecological adaptation.
Clearly, anyone who does not want to expose the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists and theistic evolutionists should not mention “amino acid” and “mutation” in the same context. Using only the definitions of both terms in the same sentence (above) alerts all serious scientists to the fact that nutrient energy-dependent amino acid substitutions are not the same as mutations, which are caused by virus-driven energy theft.
…for now, it’s the first demonstration that many Type 2 diabetes-linked DNA changes have to do with the same DNA-reading molecule. Called Regulatory Factor X, or RFX, it’s a master regulator for a number of genes.
The regulation of genes is energy dependent.
“RFX is probably unable to read the misspelled words, and this disruption of regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic risk of Type 2 diabetes.”
The concept of “misspelled words” is appropriate for use only in the context of pseudoscientific nonsense that fails to address facts about natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality. Codon optimality links the speed of light on contact with water to biophysically constrained RNA-medidated cell type differentiation in all living genera.
They characterized differences not just in DNA sequences, but also in the way DNA was packaged and modified by epigenetic factors, and the levels of gene expression products that indicated how often the genes had been read and transcribed.
Epigenetically-effected reading and transcription is energy dependent and biophysically constrained via the speed of light and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution such as seawater and blood. Serious scientists noticed that pattern and linked virus-driven energy theft from pathology in bacteria to archaea and from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika-virus damaged DNA in human infants. The craniofacial morphology and brain development of infected human infants clearly links energy-dependent fixation of amino acids to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all living genera.
E. Margoliash, W. M. Fitch, and others have compared the amino acid sequences in cytochrome C in different branches of the living world. Most significant similarities as well as differences have been brought to light. The cytochrome C of different orders of mammals and birds differ in 2 to 17 amino acids, classes of vertebrates in 7 to 38, and vertebrates and insects in 23 to 41; and animals differ from yeasts and molds in 56 to 72 amino acids. Fitch and Margoliash prefer to express their findings in what are called “minimal mutational distances.” It has been mentioned above that different amino acids are coded by different triplets of nucleotides in DNA of the genes; this code is now known.
Facts about nutrient energy-dependent codon optimality also are known to be refutations of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense because codon optimality links Darwin’s “conditions of life” to the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See: Codon optimality controls differential mRNA translation during amino acid starvation and Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See for comparison: Epigenetic Editing of Ascl1 Gene in Neural Stem Cells by Optogenetics
Each DNA change might alter this binding in a different way, leading to a slightly different effect on Type 2 diabetes risk or blood sugar regulation. But the common factor for many of these changes was its effect on the area where RFX is predicted to bind, in the cells of pancreatic islets.
So, says Parker, this shows how the genome – the actual sequence of DNA—can influence the epigenome, or the factors that influence gene expression.
The sequence of DNA cannot influence the epigenome before the energy-dependent sequence has been created via natural selection for codon optimality. That is why epigenetically-effected nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled energy-dependent changes in supercoiled DNA were linked from the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in Pseudomonas fluorescens to all biodiversity in all living genera via the conserved molecular mechanisms that link light energy-induced changes in microRNAs to all biodiversity.
For active drug delivery, the nanomotor should be able to orient towards specific chemical signals, such as those demonstrated in chemotaxis21–25 and pH taxis26.
See also: pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems
…assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.
If naturally occurring chemotaxis could not readily be linked from pH-taxis and phototaxis to natural selection for codon optimaility and supercoiled DNA, light energy as information could not be linked to communication between the microscopic and the macroscopic world.
“Light is a more effective option to communicate between the microscopic world and the macroscopic world,” said Tang.
The fact that the energy-dependent virucidal effects of sunlight have been linked to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in an organism that fluoresces on exposure to UV light was placed into the context of claims about two amino acid substitutions that were reported as if they were mutations.
Summary: Francis S. Collins, current NIH director, is a theistic evolutionist. He should not use his position to tout the pseudoscientific nonsense of evolution. He is supposed to link experimental evidence of biologically-based facts to healthy longevity or to pathology.
All of the individuals who assisted with the preparation of the manuscript are employed by the Executive Office of the President.
Former President Barrack Obama should not have used his position or his employees to mislead the voters in the United States of America. He correctly stated that “…partisanship and special interest opposition remain…,” which ensured that “…experience with the Affordable Care Act…” would demonstrate “…that positive change is achievable on some of the nation’s most complex challenges.” That claim was placed into the context of misrepresentations made by ~50% of people who are biologically uninformed theorists and/or those who are atheists. Clearly there is overlap among those groups of people. Hopefully, others will see why. They’ve been taught to believe in theistic evolution or nothing.
Experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect refutes theistic evolution by linking virus-driven energy theft to all pathology in all living genera. In the context of Genetic regulatory signatures underlying islet gene expression and type 2 diabetes, Francis S. Collins revealed either his ignorance or his treachery.
The article links the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens via RNA synthesis, not mutations.
Virus-driven energy theft influences energy-dependent RNA-mediated gene expression, and the energy theft is clearly linked to mutations. See for example: DEPENDENCE OF RNA SYNTHESIS IN ISOLATED THYMUS NUCLEI ON GLYCOLYSIS, OXIDATIVE CARBOHYDRATE CATABOLISM AND A TYPE OF “OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION”
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.
See also: microRNA “Regulatory Factor X”