I repeat: “The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input calibrate and standardize molecular mechanisms for genetically predisposed receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression…”

Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of the anti‐COVID‐19 Drug Remdesivir 9/1/20

The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the anti-COVID-19 drug Remdesivir… showed that this DyKAT is a first-order visual kinetic reaction dependent on the catalyst concentration. The unique chiral bicyclic imidazole skeleton and carbamate substituent of the catalyst are both required for the racemization process…

The racemization process involved a subsequent stereodiscriminating step that was linked to its potential for industrial application.

See for comparison this link to a naturally occurring process: Catalytic asymmetric and stereodivergent oligonucleotide synthesis 2/12/21

Two different CPA scaffolds have proven to be essential for achieving stereodivergence: peptide-embedded phosphothreonine-derived CPAs, which reinforce and amplify the inherent substrate preference, and C2-symmetric BINOL-derived CPAs, which completely overturn this stereochemical preference. The presently reported catalytic method does not require stoichiometric activators or chiral auxiliaries and enables asymmetric catalysis with readily available phosphoramidites.

Even if you start with Peptide synthesis at the origin of life and “…peptide-embedded phosphothreonine-derived CPAs…’ you may never be able to fully grasp the extent of what gene-centric theorists will do to try to support the pseudoscientific nonsense of their gene-centric theories.

But see: Crosstalk between codon optimality and cis-regulatory elements dictates mRNA stability 1/5/21

All intelligent serious scientists have linked natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality from the light-activated physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and healthy longevity via DNA repair. See: UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair 12/10/15

…it is the driving power represented by the oxidation potential of the radical ion, which controls the repair. Thus, repair capacities are strongly sequence-dependent, creating DNA regions with different tendencies of self-repair. This self-healing activity represents the simplest sequence-dependent DNA repair system.

See also: Oxidation-dependent ion-mediated DNA repair was linked from photosynthesis to protonated RNA interference via Quintillionths of a second in slow motion (2018)

An important intermediary step in many chemical processes is ionization. A typical example of this is photosynthesis. The reactions take only a few femtoseconds (quadrillionths of a second), or even a few hundred attoseconds (quintillionths of a second). Because they run so extremely fast, only the initial and final products are known, but not the reaction paths or the intermediate products.

Femtosecond blasts of UV light repair virus-damaged DNA. The reaction paths and intermediate products link subatomic particles to biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of the cell biology game “Cytosis” and the forthcoming game “Subatomic.” Cryo-EM technology is the key to linking energy-dependent changes in electron spin to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

It is tempting to link the works of all theorists to examples of human idiocy via

Virus-cutting enzyme helps bacteria remember a threat  2/20/15

Our work reveals an overlooked role for Cas9: forming the memories that make adaptive immunity possible for bacteria,” Marraffini says.

Adaptive immunity exemplifies energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency, not mutation-driven evolution.

See: MicroRNA biogenesis and their functions in regulating stem cell potency and differentiation 6/9/16

See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

The role of viral microRNAs in the inhibition of cell type differentiation has become much clearer during the past decade in the context food energy-dependent microRNAs. The contrast links the epigenetic landscape to the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.

What remains to be seen is how thermodynamic cycles of nutrient-dependent protein biosynthesis and degradation are constrained by the physiology of reproduction, which enables the entropic plasticity of epigenesis that leads to anti-entropic epistasis in species from microbes to man.

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