Summary: The facts about interethnic genetic similarities and differences refute all theories about evolved biodiveristy. Ecological variation must be linked to ecological adaptation by what organisms eat and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. Dobzhansky’s “light” was Schrodinger’s anti-entropic virucidal sunlight and Dobzhansky, a creationist, was joking about millions of years of evolution. He knew that food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions differentiated the cell types of primates. Why don’t you know that?
…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.
By combining biochemical approaches in human and yeast extracts with genetic analysis, much has been learned about the RNA—RNA and RNA—protein interactions that are necessary to assemble the various complexes that are found along the pathway to the catalytically active spliceosome.
Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988).
Alternative splicing (AS) affects transcripts from ∼95% of multiexon human genes, and most of the resulting mRNA variants are variably expressed between human cell and tissue types…
The nutrient-dependent origin of amino acid substitutions in viruses [153-156], which also are manifested in plant and animal interactions, exemplifies a continuum of biological plausibility and ecological validity in the context of Laws of Biology.
Nothing about evolution makes sense outside the context of the “Laws of Biology.” Light-activated endogenous substrates link Dobzhabky’s “light of evolution” from natural selection for energy-dependent RNA-mediated codon optimality to DNA repair and ecological adaptations via the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans
This article is both an account of an emerging field elucidating brain-body interactions at multiple levels, from molecules to social organization, as well as a personal account of my laboratory’s role and, most importantly, the roles of trainees and colleagues, along with my involvement in interdisciplinary groups working on this topic.
RNA editing in MG leads to overall changes in the abundance of edited proteins that coordinate the function of multiple cellular pathways. Conversely, mice lacking the APOBEC1 editing function in MG display evidence of dysregulation, with progressive age-related signs of neurodegeneration, characterized by clustering of activated MG, aberrant myelination, increased inflammation, and lysosomal anomalies that culminate in behavioral and motor deficiencies. Collectively, our study identifies posttranscriptional modification by RNA editing as a critical regulatory mechanism of vital cellular functions that maintain overall brain health.
…early life fitness traits can be enhanced at low levels of dietary amino acids that do not impose a cost to lifespan. Exome matching also enhanced mouse growth, indicating that it can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequence is known.
Alternative splicing is a tightly regulated biological process by which the number of gene products for any given gene can be greatly expanded. Genomic variants in splicing regulatory sequences can disrupt splicing and cause disease. Recent developments in sequencing technologies and computational biology have allowed researchers to investigate alternative splicing at an unprecedented scale and resolution. Population-scale transcriptome studies have revealed many naturally occurring genetic variants that modulate alternative splicing and consequently influence phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility in human populations. Innovations in experimental and computational tools such as massively parallel reporter assays and deep learning have enabled the rapid screening of genomic variants for their causal impacts on splicing. In this review, we describe technological advances that have greatly increased the speed and scale at which discoveries are made about the genetic variation of alternative splicing. We summarize major findings from population transcriptomic studies of alternative splicing and discuss the implications of these findings for human genetics and medicine.
The fact that food enery-dependent alternative splicing variation in human populations is biophysically constrained by the energy-dependent de novo creation of enzymes has been ignored by theorists. The biophysically constrained constrained creation of enzymes has been linked from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all morphological and behavioral diversity in species from microbes to humans and to enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity in all human populations that have existed during the past ~6000 years.
Reported as: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome (2012)
That fact is not discussed by neo-Darwinian theorists or “Big Bang” cosmologists for obvious reasons. It makes it clear that theorists do not understand the Laws of Biology that Darwin placed into the contest of his “conditions of life.”
See for comparison:
to be continued….