See: Light energy-induced base pair changes (1)

To help others move forward via the concept of energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding and what is known about how virus-driven energy theft is linked to all pathology, see also:

Subatomic Particles, Part 1: Leptons

Subatomic Particles, Part 2: Baryons, the Substance of the Cosmos

Subatomic Particles, Part 3: Mesons

If you are not ready to start from the de novo creation of the energy in a hydrogen atom, you may need a miracle to save you from the suffering and untimely death caused by eco-terrorists or other terrorists.

March 9, 2016 See Gene intelligence: The risks and rewards of genome editing resonate beyond the clinic.

Last month, one of the top intelligence officials in the United States warned that genome-editing technology is now a potential weapon of mass destruction.

Ten years after Greg Bear’s predictions in Quantico may be too long to wait to tell others about his published works. Is the wait-time justifiable because he is a science fiction novelist?

See also the discussion of hypogonadism and chromosomal aberations on the miRNA & siRNA facebook group.

One of my last 5 posts to the group is duplicated here: The RNA world hypothesis: the worst theory of the early evolution of life (except for all the others)

Excerpt:

…the widespread use of proton-motive force for energy transduction throughout the living world today is explained as a legacy of a highly acidic prebiotic environment and may be viewed as a clue to the existence of such an environment” [87]. Although Russell, Martin and others [23-26] have argued that proton and thermal gradients between the outflow from hot alkaline (pH 9-11) under-sea hydrothermal vents and the surrounding cooler more acidic ocean may have constituted the first sources of energy at the origin of life, the lack of RNA stability at alkaline pH ( [5] and references within) would appear to make such vents an unlikely location for RNA world evolution.

My comment: The stability of RNA across the ranges of pH that support life is energy-dependent and it links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors to chemotaxis and phototaxis in the context of metabolic and genetic networks that link amino acid substitutions to all biodiversity via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution.

Unless someone besides the plagiarist, Tomi Aalto comments, there will be no discussion of facts about how the stability of RNA is linked from RNA methylation to learning and memory, RNA-mediated DNA methylation, and the amino acid substitutions that differentiate all biophysically constrained cell types in all individuals of all living genera in the context of energy-dependent protein folding chemistry that starts with subatomic physics and links angstroms to ecosystems via supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

See also: Sociologist identifies science-oriented religious group in US politics

Excerpt:

The wild card is the post-secular group. Embracing both science-oriented and religiously inclined views led them to have unique attitudes toward social issues. They are more conservative when it comes to gender and sexuality but lean progressive when it comes to social justice, civil liberties and education.

The brain’s stunning genomic diversity revealed

My comment: The authors cite Needleman, S.B. & Wunsch, C.D. A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of two proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 48, 443–453 (1970).

See also: Nothing in Biology Makes Sense except in the Light of Evolution

Excerpt:

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla (p. 127).

My comment: How much longer can researchers pretend to not known how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs in all genera? Zika virus-driven energy theft links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of damaged DNA to the need for nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated repair. Repair is linked from amino acid substitutions to supercoiled DNA in one generation. It prevents us from becoming even more like other primates. The other primates have been left with virus-driven loss of function in genes and less developed brains. The differences in brain development and differences in craniofacial morphology are readily linked to differences in behavior.

See also: Mice born from ‘tricked’ eggs

Excerpt:

Our work challenges the dogma, held since early embryologists first observed mammalian eggs around 1827 and observed fertilisation 50 years later, that only an egg cell fertilised with a sperm cell can result in a live mammalian birth.

My comment: Obviously, the energy contained in the DNA of the sperm is required for cell type differentiation.

Mice produced by mitotic reprogramming of sperm injected into haploid parthenogenotes (this is an open access article)

Excerpt:

The ability of mitotic embryos to reprogram sperm in phICSI blurs functional distinctions between somatic, embryonic and gametic cell lineages.

My comment: The ability clarifies the fact that all functional distinctions between somatic, embryonic and gametic cell lineages are energy-dependent and that transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all morphological and behavior phenotypes is controlled by the physiology of reproduction.

See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

 

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