Pado, a fluorescent protein with proton channel activity can optically monitor membrane potential, intracellular pH, and map gap junctions
Nature has developed a vast array of voltage-responsive proteins. To improve our ability to optimize the voltage sensitivity, kinetics, and signal size of GEVIs, an in silico search strategy was developed to identify potential voltage-sensing proteins since new genomes are routinely being sequenced. The use of a conserved amino acid motif in the second transmembrane segment of the voltage-sensing phosphatase (VSP) gene family enabled the identification of distantly related voltage-sensing proteins including voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav), voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav), voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv), and voltage-gated proton channels (Hv).
My comment: Their claim about what “Nature” somehow developed can be compared to what obviously must occur. First, genes must be created. The de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors, such as olfactory receptor genes, links energy-dependent changes in base pairs from angstroms to ecosystems via nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation and histone acetylation in all living genera. For example, de novo gene creation links the conserved amino acid substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone decapeptide to the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates.
…the ability to shift the Hv activity to more negative potentials by increasing the external pH of the bath solution offers researchers a straightforward way to control the internal pH with an immediate, optical feedback.
My conclusion: The link from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal biological energy and top-down causation will lead to rediscovery of the equally obvious link from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. The energy theft is clearly linked from lower intracellular pH, which facilitates the replication of viruses in different cell types of different tissues, such as blood. They need only place their current findings into the context of what is known to those who already linked energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to RNA-mediated DNA repair and all biodiversity via microRNA flanking sequences, amino acid substitutions, adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA.
Alternatively, they could place their findings into the context of what is known about the weekend evolution of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens. In either case, it becomes obvious that virus-driven energy theft causes all mutations and all pathology. That fact will not become less obvious.
For example, a few months ago I suggested to a student in Dr. Rosenberg’s lab at Baylor that virus-driven energy theft could be linked to all pathology in the context of Richard Lenski’s experiments. The ability to measure a virus-driven change in the intracellular pH of E. coli would link a virus-driven change in the fluorescence of P. fluorescens. The virus-driven change in two microbes would be the ultimate neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory killer. It would show that weekend evolution of the bacterial flagellum was biophysically constrained by nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated DNA repair and the physiology of reproduction.