Excerpt:

Analysis of the crystal structure of deer mouse Hb at 1.8 Å resolution (24, 25) revealed that each of the eight rHb mutants is characterized by a unique constellation of hydrogen bonds within and between subunits (Table 2 and fig. S2). Additional hydrogen bonds between subunits of the same αβ dimer are formed in the presence of β128Ser (an L-type residue; fig. S2), which contributes to the observed epistasis between allelic α- and β-chain variants.

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Energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency (i.e., silencing of viral elements) protects all organized genomes from the degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology. The mutations are caused by nutritional stress and/or social stress. That fact has been known to all serious scientists for at least 50 years. But see:

Silencing of viral elements: A cure for schizophrenia? ARTICLE Provisionally accepted

1. The problem.
Scientific evidence for various infectious agents as cause for psychosis in schizophrenia is not robust. Many pathogens that influence brain development might play a role in disease causation. It has been shown that influenza exposure before birth(Brown, 2012), exposure to herpes simplex during birth(Brown et al., 2011) or exposition to Toxoplasma gondii and other pathogens (Arias et al., 2012) increases risk for schizophrenia and/or compromises cognition. During psychosis viral and also ancient retroviral elements become may activated in the brain(Karlsson et al., 2001; Perron et al., 2012). The implication of this research for use in clinical practice is ambiguous, because a robust virus test is lacking.

Examples of human idiocy are the problem. See for comparison:

QuEBS workshop has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has been developed in Lithuania for more than 20 years already. The beginnings could be associated with a series of “Light-harvesting Physics” international conferences, which were held in Lithuania (in Preila, 1992 and 1994, and in Birštonas, 1996). During these conferences, discussion of notable scientists and pioneers of Quantum Biology, such as Graham R. Fleming, Shaul Mukamel, Rienk van Grondelle, Richard Cogdell, Alfred Holzwarth and others, established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.

Every aspect of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated life on Earth has refuted the pseudoscientific nonsense about emergence and evolution.

As climate warms, mice morph

Biologists document changes in teeth and skull structure in two species in southern Quebec over past 50 years

The ridiculous claim that the fixed amino acid substitutions were adaptive mutations proves how little the authors understand about biophysically constrained viral latency.

Excerpt 1)

“Biologists document changes in teeth and skull structure in two species in southern Quebec over past 50 years

Excerpt 2)

“These changes may be related to a dietary shift caused by climate change, combined with competition for food resources between the two species of mice, according to the researchers.”

All serious scientists know that food energy biophysically constrains the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which links the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in all living genera.
 
We have now arrived at the claims of biologically uninformed science idiots who tell us that two different species evolved in 50 years.
 

Excerpt 3)

“One question that remains to be settled is whether the changes are genetic, and will be passed on to future generations — actual evolution — or whether they represent “plasticity,” the capacity of some species to adjust to rapid environmental change.”

The facts about the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity for comparison to virus-driven pathology have been exquisitely detailed. All serious scientists have dispensed with the nonsense that questions the capacity of some species to adjust to rapid environmental change. Ecological variation must be linked from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that link fixation of amino acid substitutions to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all individuals and all species on Earth.

See for instance, on the same day that my 2013 refutation of Nei’s pseudoscientific nonsense about Mutation-driven evolution was published, this also was published: Epistasis Among Adaptive Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin

Epistasis is food energy-dependent. The energy must be biophysically constrained in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. The creation of energy in a hydrogen atom was linked from the anti-entropic virucidal effect of sunlight to the stability of the organized genome of mice by hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and differences in the hemoglobin molecule of ecologically adapted species.

Analysis of the crystal structure of deer mouse Hb at 1.8 Å resolution (24, 25) revealed that each of the eight rHb mutants is characterized by a unique constellation of hydrogen bonds within and between subunits (Table 2 and fig. S2). Additional hydrogen bonds between subunits of the same αβ dimer are formed in the presence of β128Ser (an L-type residue; fig. S2), which contributes to the observed epistasis between allelic α- and β-chain variants.

See also:

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

The fact that every Angstrom is dynamic and the fact that energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance have been linked to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity was placed into the context of this parody:

 See also:

The Mechanical Properties of DNA are food energy-dependent and RNA-mediated

The elastic properties of the DNA molecule determine how it supercoils during replication, how it packs into confined biological structures and how it interacts with proteins during gene expression.

See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

Pattern recognition

Nutrient-dependent atomic-level changes may determine the nucleotide changes in a specific base pair. The nucleotide changes appear to link nutrient-dependent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the availability of fruits and vegetables or fermented milk products to individual differences and to species differences in the need for certain vitamins. For example, cell type determination and differentiation are associated with the nutrient-dependent 3D distribution of amino acid substitutions as they accumulated during a history of ecological adaptations [32] in flies [9] and in humans [33]. Sex differences in behavior also appear to arise from the single-molecule and single cell levels in flies, which suggests that adaptive changes in behavior can be explained in the context of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled genome-environment interactions that alter circuit plasticity via amino acid substitutions [34].

Conclusion from: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

The companion papers [162-163] told a new short story of ecological adaptations. In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China. Apparently, the effect of the epiallele was adaptive and it was manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In another mammal, such as the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is probably due to a nutrient-dependent epigenetic effect on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones appear to control the nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected hormone-dependent organization and hormone-activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates and in microbes as previously indicated.

The ecological adaptations, which appear to be manifested in the human population are detailed in these two reports [162-163]. The ecological adaptations are likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. If so, ecological variation probably leads to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction, which is manifested in increasing organismal complexity and species diversity. If not, there may be something as yet unknown about mutations and evolution that makes sense in the light of what is known about nutritional epigenetics and the molecular biology of species from microbes to man.

See for comparison: The evolution of H2

Biohydrogen production from hyperthermophilic anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes in seawater: Simplification of the culture medium of Thermotoga maritima

Mechanism of Nitrogenase H2 Formation by Metal-Hydride Protonation Probed by Mediated Electrocatalysis and H/D Isotope Effects

The claims that energy emerged or that differences in hydrogen and differences in species evolved outside the context of the energy-dependent creation of enzymes are among the most ridiculous examples of human idiocy that any serious scientist has ever encountered.

Claims about the emergence of life were again retracted on November 23, 20-17 and reported on December 5, 2017.

”Definitely embarrassing:” Nobel Laureate retracts non-reproducible paper in Nature journal

See: Comment awaiting moderation.

James V. Kohl December 7, 2017 at 4:35 am

The Science Behind the Game “Cytosis,” pits the collaborative efforts of 20 serious scientists against the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists. The serious scientists know how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs.

Resources (e.g., mRNA, ATP) are used to build enzymes, hormones, and/or receptors. Health points accumulate to show why food energy must be linked from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency.

For comparison, Szostak and other theorists have been stuck with their ridiculous misrepresentations of emergence and neo-Darwinian evolution, which failed to consider Darwin’s “conditions of life.”

“Conditions of life” are energy-dependent. The energy is Schrodinger’s anti-entropic virucidal energy. It comes from sunlight and is epigenetically “trapped” in food via the physiology of reproduction.

Board Game:
Cytosis: A Cell Biology Game
Title:
Cytosis – The Science Behind the Game https://boardgamegeek.com/filepage/155090/cytosis-science-behind-game

See also: Two retractions of human idiocy

See also: Routing gene therapy directly into the brain

Once the genetically-engineered HSCs are transplanted into the brain’s ventricles, the crucial enzyme they contain helps to metabolize the materials that were previously building up and causing tissue damage.

A new lineage of cells descended from the transplanted HSCs — a type of cell called a myeloid — begin to scavenge and consume the excess material that is responsible for neurodegeneration.

The pheromone-controlled differentiation of these cell types was predicted in the context of claims that pheromones biophysically constrain all pathology in the mouse to human model, which has been thoroughly detailed since 1994.

See: [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)

See also: Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis

See also: Researchers Discover Key to Diseases in Mitochondrial DNA Mutations

Because the primary job of the mitochondrion is to produce energy, most of its genes are involved in pathways in the energy production process. Although it has a small genetic code, mtDNA contains the blueprints for building many of the enzymes and proteins that are needed to function in those pathways.
 
The virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information links the degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology in all living genera. The speed of light on contact with water has been linked to all energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair in the context of the physiology of reproduction and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity.

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