Cell type differentiation in all genera begins with the recognition of self vs non-self differences such as those we attributed to RNA-mediated pheromone-controlled sex differences in the cell types of species from yeasts to mammals. See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Excerpt: “Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).”
We failed to note that cell type differentiation is nutrient-dependent, but the molecular mechanisms of odor-linked cell type differentiation have since been extended across species with examples in articles like these:
Decoding Bacterial Methylomes Excerpt: “this particular E. coli had also adopted a methylase from the same phage. This methylation-laying enzyme resulted in a complete epigenetic makeover…”
My comment: See also: CRISPR Shows How A Bacterial Cell Can Recognize Its Own DNA
Excerpt: “Solving the riddle of self versus non-self for the bacterial immune system and deciphering the exact mechanism of this step in the CRISPR process gives us important insight into the unseen confrontation that is taking place everywhere, all around us, all the time.”
My comment: Evolutionary theorists have ignored this “…unseen confrontation that is taking place everywhere, all around us, all the time.” They have proposed ridiculous theories that supposedly link mutations to evolution as if they could eliminate the unseen with claims that E. coli evolved antibiotic resistance. See: The Man Who Bottled Evolution.
Serious scientists, and even the science fiction novelist Greg Bear, have ecological variation to virus-driven ecological adaptation via the biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding.
Whether or not they knew it, serious scientists also have addressed the unseen confrontation. They have linked the balance of viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. Fixation of nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions occurs occurs in the context of the physiology of reproduction in all genera.
Historically, it has been easy to convince the biologically uninformed that they are evolved mutants. Many people have accepted that ridiculous story, despite accurate representations of biologically-based cause and effect in the stories told by Greg Bear in 1999 and 2004. You may watch the video representation of those stories, here.
Also, with his permission, I am posting the text from a similar presentation.
Others can read about virus-induced ecological adaptations and re-read the story until even those who are horribly biologically uninformed might begin to understand what is currently known about biologically-based cause and effect.
“The Darwin Code” by Greg Bear
“…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla” (p. 127).
Whether or not Greg Bear believes in God or an intelligent designer, we know that in the same article, Dobzhansky claimed: “It is wrong to hold creation and evolution as mutually exclusive alternatives. I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God’s, or Nature’s, method of Creation. Creation is not an event that happened in 4004 B.C.; it is a process that began some 10 billion years ago and is still under way.”
Other evolutionists have unknowingly linked virus-driven differences in amino acid substitutions to re-evolution of the bacterial flagellum in 96 hours and to the lack of evolution in bacteria across 1.8 billion years. Other creationists have linked viruses to cell type differentiation in all genera and to development of the mammalian brain. My model links viral microRNAs and nutrient-dependent microRNAs to fertility in verebrates via RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types in all genera.
Excerpt: “…these results shed light on a new role of miRNAs in neuroendocrine processes and point out a specific set of miRNAs as key component of the genetic network that controls GnRH promoter activity. This supports the modulation of GnRH expression levels according to the developmental clock and to specific environmental/physiological changes to contribute to the postnatal activation of GnRH neurons.”
My comment: It is helpful to also link excess nutrient uptake to perturbed protein folding via mutations that are linked to physiopathology but not to the physiology of reproduction. See: MCRS1 Binds and Couples Rheb to Amino Acid-Dependent mTORC1 Activation, which was reported as: Oncogene regulated by nutrients identified.
Excerpt: “Although in our study we published the results obtained from these colorectal samples, we are also studying the relationship between this protein and diseases of the liver, the primary metabolic organ,” explains Djouder.
My comment: The metabolism of nutrients links food odors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. The substitutions are linked to cell type differentiation via metabolic networks and genetic networks. The networks are altered by a single base pair. A single base pair links an amino acid substitution to different morphological phentopyes. The differences in the morphological phenotypes are linked via differences in the production of species-specific pheromones to the physiology of reproduction in mice, rats, and humans. The link from a single amino acid substitution to behavioral phenotypes that vary during life history transitions is now considered in the context of “Precision Medicine” that links what is known about cell type differentiation to life history transitions. See: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults