I failed to correctly predict who would win this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry, but there is still hope for my prediction of who will win the Nobel Peace Prize. I thought Lynn Zechiedrich would win for linking cryo-EM to the Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
Our cryo-ET, biochemical, and computational studies show the astounding versatility and dynamism of DNA depending on the degree of supercoiling. DNA simultaneously exists in a largely inactive B-form with bases tucked in and protected and an active, highly varied structure with exposed bases. Our data provide relative comparisons of supercoiling-dependent twisted, writhed, curved, and kinked conformations and associated base exposure. Each of these structural features may be differentially recognized by the proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules that modulate DNA metabolic processes.
“Electron cryo-tomography (ECT, also called cryo-electron tomography, cryo-ET or CET) is an imaging technique used to produce high-resolution (~4 nm) three-dimensional views of samples, typically biological macromolecules and cells. ECT is a specialized application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in which samples are imaged as they are tilted, resulting in a series of 2D images that can be combined to produce a 3D reconstruction, similar to a CT scan of the human body. In contrast to other electron tomography techniques, samples are immobilized in non-crystalline (“vitreous”) ice and imaged under cryogenic conditions (< −150 °C), allowing them to be imaged without dehydration or chemical fixation, which could otherwise disrupt or distort biological structures.“
See for comparison: Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), or electron cryomicroscopy, is a form of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) where the sample is studied at cryogenic temperatures (generally liquid-nitrogen temperatures). Cryo-EM is gaining popularity in structural biology.
The Zechiedrich group used cryo-ET to link the energy-dependent transfer of hydrogen atoms in DNA base pairs in solution from quantum physics to chemistry and the functional structure of DNA via RNA-directed DNA methylation. For example, fixation of amino acid substitutions differentiates all cell types in all living genera in the context of their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
I apologize for being wrong about this award. Obviously, I do not know the diffference between cryo-EM and cryo-ET Instead, see: Scientists Who Developed Cryo-Electron Microscopy Win Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded this morning (October 4) to three scientists who developed cryo-electron microscopy, a method that allows scientists to freeze biomolecules and view them at atomic resolution. Using this technique, researchers have been able to study the structure of a variety of biological molecules, from proteins involved in circadian rhythms to the Zika virus.
This is the first of the three Prizes awarded to researchers this year who have linked quantum physics from chemistry to biology via the claims of Richard Feynman about food energy, which can now be placed into the context of links from cryo-EM and possibly also from cryo-ET to all biodiversity — especially if there are unremarkable differences between cryo-ET and cryo-EM.
In any case, Feynman knew that observation at the level of atomic resolution would be required to link food energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems in all living genera (via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution) and the physiology of reproduction. Bruce McEwen also knew at the time he co-authored: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.
Those who have failed to link quantized energy as information to ATP dependent life and all biodiversity via the synthesis of RNA have also failed to link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology. For comparison, see: All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody).
Perhaps the Nobel Prize Committee does not value the use of parodies to ridicule pseudoscientists who have failed to link energy-dependent changes from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the biophysically constrained physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species form microbes to humans.
For comparison, this parody is about what “Chemists Know” about how to link energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems.
See also: Celebrate Your Inner Virus 10/3/17
Viruses are amazingly complex and beautiful machines. They exhibit all the hallmarks of being designed, though we often fail to recognize them as such. Therefore, we seek to highlight the strengths of what makes a virus on this Virus Appreciation Day.1 The design in viruses is highlighted in many different ways, from being essential during normal developmental processes to being used as novel therapy for treating brain cancer. It is important that we understand the design present in viruses because God made them. All creatures of our God demonstrate his handiwork, and viruses are no different.
I was shocked to see the claim that God created viruses come from “…an apologetics ministry, dedicated to helping Christians defend their faith and proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ.” The claims that viruses are like “All creatures of our God…” is even more amazing given the publication history of “Answers in Genesis.”
This was also reported in the same publication: Did God Make Pathogenic Viruses? 4/1/1999
…viruses are not living, and in order to reproduce and to make ATP, they require all of the complex cellular machinery present in bacterial cells. Other scientists speculate that a reverse symbiosis occurred, and that viruses arose out of cell parts such as bacterial plasmids and other organelles, and eventually evolved into separate forms of life.18
See also: Research is showing that viruses are a critical part of life. Holmes has noted:
‘For sheer numbers, no other ocean beings can match viruses. Thousands, sometimes even millions of these molecular parasites inhabit every drop of surface seawater, outnumbering even bacteria by 10 to 1 … evidence that suggests that viruses are a powerful force in the sea, and one that determines how many plankton and ultimately how many fish, and even humans, an ocean ecosystem can support … viruses must have a profound influence on the entire oceanic ecosystem. When protozoans eat bacteria, energy passes along the food chain leading from protozoa to other zooplankton to larger predators, including fish. But when virus-infected bacterial cells burst, their energy-rich cell contents spill into the water for other bacteria to scavenge. “Viruses tend to keep nutrients away from the big stuff and keep them going around in the little stuff,” says Fuhrman. If so, viruses have shaped the entire structure of the ecosystem.’62
Eugene Koonin admitted that The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…
Kalevi Kull wrote: Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge.
It has become obvious that the virus-driven energy theft of quantized energy as information causes the mutations that all serious scientists have linked to all pathology in species from microbes to humans. In a twist of fate, an apologetics ministry appear to support claims linked to the Modern Synthesis. At the same time, the cutting edge research of all serious scientists and the cell biology game “Cytosis” have linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA. Energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair has been linked to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
Thank God, as we wait for more information to come from apologetics ministries and from biologically uninformed neo-Darwinian theorists, some of us can begin to learn how to protect ourselves from viruses, just in case that is what God intended us to be able to do.
The fulfillment centers in the UK and Australia started shipping Cytosis out to backers last week, and the fulfillment centers in the US and Germany are planning to start shipping packages out this week (Let’s keep our fingers crossed). Shipments to Canada will be 3-4 days behind US shipments since those games got delivered to the US and then split off to Canada