See also: Pseudoscientists hate what science explains (2)

Summary: In addition to germline silencing via information transfer to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA, multicopy transgene arrays are linked from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to variation in their somatic expression level. That fact helps to establish the difference between healthy longevity and pathology across generations.

Problems with DNA replication can cause epigenetic changes that may be inherited for several generations

My summary: The polycomb repressive complex 2, additional chromatin- and small RNA–related pathways carry quantized energy as information from the epigenetic landscape. The information causes changes in microRNAs that modify histones, which links the energy to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phentypes in the nematode model organism.

In addition to germline silencing via information transfer to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA, multicopy transgene arrays are linked from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to variation in their somatic expression level. That fact helps to establish the difference between healthy longevity and pathology across generations.

The difference is food energy-dependent, RNA-mediated, and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

See for comparison: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes…. Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans… That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

Parallel evolution of conserved non-coding elements that target a common set of developmental regulatory genes from worms to humans

We propose that CNEs [conserved non-coding elements] represent the ‘hard-wired’ sequence traces of these core animal group-specific GRNs [gene regulatory networks]. The alternative core GRNs of different animal lineages are reflected in their having alternative CNEs. However, because of their co-evolution from a common metazoan ancestor, the core GRNs of different animal groups often utilize the same regulatory genes. As a result, distinct yet parallel sets of CNEs have become irreversibly associated with the same genes that coordinate core developmental networks in diverse animal groups. Indeed, this evolution of regulatory elements may underlie the astounding diversification of animal body plans that was seen during the Cambrian period approximately 550 million years ago.

No experimental evidence suggests that regulatory elements evolved.

Predicting phenotypic variation in yeast from individual genome sequences

No experimental evidence predicts a link from gain of function mutations to evolution

Differential DNA mismatch repair underlies mutation rate variation across the human genome

All experimental evidence links natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to mutation rate variation across species and to individual differences in the human genome via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

3D structures of individual mammalian genomes studied by single-cell Hi-C

Reported as: Scientists have determined the 3D structures of intact mammalian genomes from individual cells, showing how the DNA from all the chromosomes intricately folds to fit together inside the cell nuclei. The research is published in Nature this week. http://go.nature.com/2n6psaw

My comments:

See also: 3D RNA and Functional Interactions from Evolutionary Couplings “…the ongoing explosion of available sequence data means that the outlook for elucidating functional interactions in mRNAs, lncRNAs, and viral genomes, as well as their protein-binding partners, is promising.” http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.03.030

Virus-driven energy theft causes the degradation of messenger RNA in all organized genomes. That fact threatens anyone who has ever reported results in the context of mutations, natural selection and evolution because natural selection occurs only for energy-dependent codon optimality.

It would be even more amazing if they told the truth about energy-dependent amino acid substitutions that stabilize supercoiled DNA, which links chromosomal rearrangement to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. See: http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6328/910

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Addendum: Say goodbye to mutation-driven evolution. Everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained endogenous RNA interference and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction has been linked from the de novo creation of nucleic acids to energy-dependent amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera via fixation in organized genomes.

See: Transgenerational transmission of environmental information in C. elegans

They link diet- and stress-induced changes in heterochromatin from repressed repetitive elements that escape epigenetic reprogramming to phenotypic variation in mammals. It is obvious that heterochromatin provides the link from the molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry to the epigenetic transmission of information between generations. But they speculate that the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of environmentally triggered changes in expression from repressed chromatin may be linked to ecological adaptations.

See for comparison: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

 …the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

Ben Lehner and his co-authors have consistently tried to sneak up from behind and link explanations of energy-dependent top-down causation from mutations to evolution.

Others are also ignoring the experimental evidence that links energy-dependent changes in microRNAs to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to all stress-linked pathology.

See: Stress-induced changes in miRNA biogenesis and functioning

See for comparison: I am not a story

Reported as: Life is not a neat narrative, it’s a patchwork of competing, even contradictory, forces. Sensations are too spurious and memory too fickle for the formation of reliable storylines. Reject the impulse to narrativise. Summer Reads from the Aeon archive: http://ow.ly/bLd430ekoJn

Re: Sensations are too spurious and memory too fickle for the formation of reliable storylines.

My comment: Too late for more of this nonsense. See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

 

The sense of smell in bacteria has been linked from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum via food energy.

See for comparison: Quantum common sense

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking

My comment: No, it’s Santa Claus who sees you when your sleeping; He knows when you’re awake. And he knows if you’ve been bad or good, so be good for goodness sake.

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