Facts about the quantized energy-dependent creation of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that converts a sequence in an RNA molecule into a sequence in a DNA molecule, have been placed into the context of social organization.
The objective of this work is to establish the connection between energy engineering and social organization and to bring social organization under the big tent of physics.
Reported as: How physics explains the evolution of social organization June 20, 2018
…seemingly disparate phenomena are actually connected through the constructal law of evolution in nature. Penned by Bejan in 1996, the law states that for a system to survive, it must evolve over time to increase its access to flow.
The human vascular system, for example, has evolved to provide blood flow…
Physicists appear to be dissatisfied with their ridiculous theories of how energy automagically emerged. They also have been forced to try to move forward by inventing theories about how emergence led to the evolution of social behaviors.
See for comparison: Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone–controlled thermodynamics and thermoregulation March 8, 2013
Natural selection for nutrients results in their metabolism to pheromones that control reproduction in species from microbes to man. In some species, sex differences in pheromones enable sexual selection. Using what is known about the molecular mechanisms common to species from microbes to man, an argument can be made from biological facts that extends to non-random nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. This biological-based argument can be compared to arguments that might be made to support a cosmological / mathematical argument for random mutations theory.
There is no support for any cosmological / mathematical argument for random mutations theory. If there was, we would not see physicists publish articles on the evolution of social organization. They would be content to accept the fact that all their theories are ridiculous and that their ridiculous theories are of no use to serious scientists.
See for comparison: Stem-cell niche for 10 billion colon cells a day
Long-term constant activation leads to colon cancer
Just how critical a well-balanced regulation of the intestinal epithelium is also becomes evident when stem cells are driven to constantly divide. If Wnt signaling is stimulated excessively, the stem cells divide in an uncontrolled manner. “Mice with mutations in the Wnt signaling pathways develop polyps, from which colon cancer later develops,” adds the molecular biologist. This is also the case for humans.
Niche cells are also responsible for tissue repair
In further tests, the researchers examined the behavior of the cells in the stem-cell niche in response to inflammation of the colon. In this situation, many more epithelial cells are lost than in healthy animals. The need for new cells is therefore greater, since the tissue not only has to be maintained but also repaired. The researchers observed that the amount of Gli1-positive cells increased significantly in response to an inflamed colon. “The cells we’ve discovered are thus not only essential for healthy organisms, but are also essential when it comes to repairing a damaged intestinal epithelium,” says Basler. The discovery and description of the colon’s stem-cell niche therefore has relevance for a whole string of intestinal diseases, from inflammation to cancer.
Dr. David Baltimore outlines the sequence of events that led to the Nobel Prize-winning discovery of reverse transcriptase, an enzyme that converts a sequence in an RNA molecule into a sequence in a DNA molecule. As Baltimore explains, the discovery of reverse transcriptase has revolutionized modern molecular biology, and it has aided in the understanding of viruses like HIV, and the genetic basis of cancer.
The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology.
Telomerase contains a specialized “reverse transcriptase,” or class of proteins, that has four major regions and several sub-regions. In this research, the scientists have revealed a large, previously unstudied sub-region called “TRAP” in the enzyme’s reverse transcriptase. Instead of copying from DNA to RNA—typically DNA makes RNA, which makes proteins—reverse transcriptases use RNA to make DNA; one that’s especially well-known is the HIV reverse transcriptase, the target of many drugs.
While other reverse transcriptases can copy any arbitrary RNA sequence and make DNA out of it, telomerase’s reverse transcriptase copies only a specific six-nucleotide RNA and does so many times to make a long chain of DNA. (Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.) TRAP plays a crucial role in adding on small pieces of DNA to the ends of chromosomes to keep them from shortening every time cells divide.
“We conclude that the signaling molecule Dll1, which is produced by the mammary stem cells, activates the signal in macrophages to sustain the mammary stem cells,” Kang said. “The survival and function of these mammary stem cells and the macrophages are dependent on each other and they communicate through these cellular messaging systems.”
The cellular messaging systems are quantized energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
What then can be said about biologically uniformed physicists? Who could say it better than Richard Feynman?