A pathway for mitotic chromosome formation

The combination of nested loops distributed around a helically twisted axis plus dense chromatin packing achieves the 10,000-fold compaction of chromatin into linearly organized chromosomes that is required for accurate chromosome segregation when cells divide.

The compaction of chromatin in the context of hydrophobicity is the topic of: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

Our data provide relative comparisons of supercoiling-dependent twisted, writhed, curved, and kinked conformations and associated base exposure. Each of these structural features may be differentially recognized by the proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules that modulate DNA metabolic processes.

Differential recognition of proteins clearly involves this link from natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to the physiology of reproduction via RNA-directed DNA methylation.

See for comparison: DNA-Methylation: Master or Slave of Neural Fate Decisions?

The involvement of splicing as effector of changes in DNA methylation is an exciting new angle to pursue with more precise epigenetic engineering tools. Distinguishing essential from specific, and causal from secondary marks will be essential for neuro-epigenetics. New approaches promise to answer long outstanding questions and will likely facilitate the discovery that DNA modifications might have new unexpected roles in the brain.

Splicing is not the effector of changes in DNA methylation, energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance must be given first consideration. But, this article is part of the Research Topic: Epigenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenesis in the Developing Neocortex

The topic is an example of human idiocy for comparison to this report on alternative splicing, which was linked to energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of:

 Alternative splicing and the evolution of phenotypic novelty and the cell biology game: Cytosis

This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’.

The origins of morphological diversity cannot be evaluated outside the context of the origins of energy-dependent behavioral diversity, which requires that RNA-mediated DNA methylation be linked to differences in cell fate in all tissues of all individuals of all species on Earth. Typically, serious scientists do this by linking the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic viral latency from  subatomic particles to creation of atoms and ecosystems in the context of human brain development via mitotic chromosome formation.

See for instance: The Excitable Mitochondria and The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win by John Hewitt.

If he did not believe that “evolution did it” after the emergence of energy, he would not have placed his bets on ridiculous theories and criticized my life’s history of publications and presentations, which he claimed were BS.

See for comparison to his claims: Correcting for Differential Transcript Coverage Reveals a Strong Relationship between Alternative Splicing and Organism Complexity

We placed the facts about alternative splicing and increasing organismal complexity into the context of our section on molecular epigenetics in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

The sexual differentiation of all cell types in species from yeast to humans was presciently placed into the context of what was known about pre-mRNA mediated biophysically constrained viral latency in 1996. Food energy-dependent pre-mRNAs are now referred to as microRNAs (miRNAs). The creation of the miRNAs links the anti-entropic virucidal of the sun to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction,  and our details from 1996 have been extended across species via this recently published work:

Reproductive role of miRNA in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis plays a critical role in regulating reproductive function. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is secreted by the hypothalamus, acts on pituitary gonadotrophs to stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) synthesis and secretion, ultimately affecting the animal’s fertility. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNAs that are widely expressed throughout the brain and can fine-tune gene expression post-transcriptionally. Recently, growing evidence has unveiled the central position of miRNAs within a key regulatory process involving GnRH secretion and subsequent activation in the pituitary. Although transcriptional regulation of reproduction has been well studied, the post-transcriptional processes are less well understood. In this review, we elaborate comprehensively on the critical role of miRNAs in the reproductive process, including both temporal and spatial aspects. A better understanding of how miRNAs impact the neuroendocrine system may improve our knowledge of reproduction and provide novel targets for therapeutic development.

For comparison, see: No Missing Link: Knowledge Predicts Acceptance of Evolution in the United States

Using a new demographically representative survey (N = 1100) that includes a detailed measure of evolution knowledge, we find that knowledge predicts level of acceptance, even after accounting for the effects of religion and politics. These results demonstrate that Americans’ views on evolution are significantly influenced by their knowledge about this theory and therefore might be amenable to change.

Reported as: Better knowledge of evolution leads to greater acceptance of the concept

…actual knowledge of the science seems to play a role, and we’ve documented that here for evolution for the first time in a representative population.”

If that claim was true, we would not see so many examples of people in other countries who have replaced the teaching of ridiculous evolutionary theories with facts that their students learn about ecological variation and ecological adaptations.

For example: Israeli Middle Schools School to Include Theory of Evolution (2014)

…learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology.

See also: Turkish schools to stop teaching evolution, official says (2017)

If you are willing to consider the facts about why many countries do not teach humans to believe in ridiculous theories, please see:

Subatomic: From thermophiles to humans (in prep)

 

 

 

Keep Reading