Phage spread antibiotic resistance

Excerpt 1)

nearly half of the 50 chicken meat samples purchased from supermarkets, street markets, and butchers in Austria contained viruses that are capable of transferring antibiotic resistance genes from one bacterium to another—or from one species to another.
Excerpt 2)
Until recently, transduction of antibiotic resistance via phage was assumed to be a very minor source of the spread of resistance, said Hilbert.

My comment: Bacteriophages were linked to cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans via RNA-mediated events, which were detailed in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior. The fact that a science fiction author was the first to make that connection to biodiversity may be why it has been ignored for nearly two decades.

Claiming “…antibiotic resistance via phage was assumed to be a very minor source of the spread of resistance…” is like claiming that antibiotic resistance was assumed to be caused by mutations. Serious scientists don’t make such ridiculous assumptions and neither did Greg Bear. See: The Darwin Code. For comparison, Richard Lenski can be credited with touting the pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and antibiotic resistance. See: The Man Who Bottled Evolution See also: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.

On May 15, 2015, an antagonist asked: “Can you even tell me what scientists have got wrong about the reasons that proteans are folded at all?

My response: Nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding protects all cell types from the damage to their DNA caused by viral microRNAs. Biophysically constrained RNA-directed DNA methylation links thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genomes of all genera.

See: The Strange Inevitability of Evolution.

Most discussants do not seem to realize that only ecological adaptation is inevitable. Organisms and species adapt or species become extinct. Organisms and species do not evolve into other species. Only the biologically uninformed and intellectually handicapped believe in the pseudoscientific nonsense about the evolution of increasing organismal complexity via mutations — or whatever other ideas theorists think sound convincing enough to tout and teach others to believe in. Thank God that the Israeli middle schools have begun to teach the theory of evolution at the same time their students are learning about ecology. That’s how several generations of scientific progress have been made by those who were not taught to believe in ridiculous theories. See: Israeli Middle Schools School to Include Theory of Evolution

Excerpt:

“…learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology.”

 

 

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