“Were there going to be dozens of [micropeptides]? Were there going to be hundreds, like there are hundreds of microRNAs?” says Ingolia. “We just didn’t know.”
“…researchers from Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia have released data that adds another 3,707 novel miRNA sequences to the human genome, in addition to the 1,900 sequences previously described. The results from this study were published recently in PNAS through an article entitled “Analysis of 13 cell types reveals evidence for the expression of numerous novel primate- and tissue-specific microRNAs”.”
My question: If you think there are hundreds of microRNAs when there are thousands of them, you may be less likely to ask where tissue-specific microRNAs come from. But, if you do ask where they come from, you might also ask how they get to specific tissues that require energy-dependent maintenance and/or RNA-mediated DNA repair. That is a question that all serious scientists should be able to answer. The answer, for example, can be placed into the context of Christ’s work on heterochronic parabiosis. See Christ et al., (2014) The Pharmacology of Regenerative Medicine.
Regenerative medicine links the National MicroRNAome Initiative from metabolic networks to genetic networks in the context of the Precision Medicine Initiative via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.
This article is part of the Research Topic Brain nutrient sensing in the control of energy balance: new insights and perspectives
The article links energy-dependent changes in microRNA flanking sequences from the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy in the context of the physiology of reproduction and fixation of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.
Other articles in the Research Topic will undoubtedly link changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to energy-dependent changes in ecosystems via what is already known about supercoiled DNA. For example, more than 50, 500 indexed PubMed articles provide details about how energy-dependent microRNAs are linked to healthy longevity and how virus-driven energy theft links mutations to all pathology.
…EVs derived from both MSCs and tumor cells display common ncRNAs; however, the functions they exhibit may be diverse depending on the cellular environment. Since ncRNAs interact with numerous molecular partners, their function is complex and depends on the cellular context. The response to EVs not only depends on their ncRNA/protein content but also on the metabolic pathways activated in recipient cells as well as their specific function. The same EVs, for instance, may trigger opposite actions in normal and tumor cells (22). Pandolfi and co-workers (164) have suggested that there is a RNA language that uses miRNAs response elements in different transcripts as “letters.” These diverse sets of miRNAs may form diverse “words,” thus performing different molecular and cellular functions. This hypothesis may, therefore, explain the different functions carried out by the same miRNAs in different contexts on tumor development. Taking into account that EV transport is bidirectional and that tumor cells can change the content of MSC-EVs and vice versa (160, 161), it is possible that the individual ncRNA display different and even opposite functions in vivo.
My comment: Serious scientists have passed the tipping point that conclusively links energy-dependent microRNAs to healthy longevity and virus-driven energy theft to mutations and all pathology via what is known about RNA-directed DNA methylation and biophysically-contrained protein folding chemistry.
See also: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
Our data provide relative comparisons of supercoiling-dependent twisted, writhed, curved, and kinked conformations and associated base exposure. Each of these structural features may be differentially recognized by the proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules that modulate DNA metabolic processes.
See what the biologically uninformed secular humanist and ecoterroist Sean Ovis does with everything known to serious scientists about the modulation of DNA metabolic processes:
If you are a creation scientist, you can take comfort in the fact that as you get older, the control of these viral fragments is considerably weakened, and eventually one or more of these jumping genes will be let loose in your body to wreak havoc on your DNA. When that happens, you can thank God, because they will have brought you closer to him.
See what Jimmy Carter did about his cancer, for comparison: Jimmy Carter announces he is cancer-free
Carter announced in August that doctors had told him that four spots of cancer had spread to his brain. He said his fate “is in the hands of God, whom I worship.”
My comment: A clear difference between ecoterrorists and a former president of the United States has emerged. Are the selfish ecoterrorists a threat to national security?
The ecoterrorists do not want others to learn about virus-driven energy theft in the context of the Precision Medicine Initiative or the National MicroRNAome Initiative.
They are hate-mongers who want you to believe that nothing can help you and nothing can save you from the suffering and death that they have brought to you via their ignorance and belief in nothing.
For comparison see the studies that are being published on energy-dependent RNA methylation. Don’t be surprised by what’s coming from serious scientists who know how cell type differentiation occurs.
A group of homologous nucleic acid modification enzymes called Dnmt2, Trdmt1, Pmt1, DnmA, and Ehmet in different model organisms catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from the cofactor S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) to the carbon-5 of cytosine residues. Originally considered as DNA MTases, these enzymes were shown to be tRNA methyltransferases about a decade ago. Between the presumed involvement in DNA modification-related epigenetics, and the recent foray into the RNA modification field, significant progress has characterized Dnmt2-related research. Here, we review this progress in its diverse facets including molecular evolution, structural biology, biochemistry, chemical biology, cell biology and epigenetics.
My comment: Frank Lyko is a co-author. He is also the co-author of Epigenetic Regulation by Heritable RNA
RNA-mediated inheritance could provide an attractive mechanism that allows a rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions without affecting the genetic makeup of an organism.
My comment: We will continue to see that neo-Darwinian theorists are left with no fall-back position. No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect has ever linked mutations from natural selection to evolution. Now, what is known about RNA methylation will be added to what is known about RNA-directed DNA methylation, and there will be no place for theorists to hide. They will be embarrassed and asked to leave — anywhere they are found.