Summary: The “Science Behind the Game” from the cell biology game “Cytosis” supports all claims that clearly link energy-dependent alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs (aka microRNAs) to biophysically constrained viral latency. Game play by ages 10+ establishes the requirement for viral latency in the context of ecological variation and ecological adaptation outside the context of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense. Simply put, Darwin presciently placed his “conditions of life” into the current perspective on ecological niche construction and sympatric speciation, which exemplifies ecological adaptation in all living genera.
For a historical perspective, see:
Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
For obfuscation of our claims about cause and effect, which have since been linked to all biodiveristy, see: Altered microRNA expression and pre-mRNA splicing events reveal new mechanisms associated with early stage Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection (2016)
Simply put, no new mechanisms were revealed. The well-known mechanisms of energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation were simply placed into the context of more unintelligible rhetoric.
See for comparison: 2013 Alternative splicings and amino acid substitutions (redux)
Ecological variation is the raw material by which natural selection can drive evolutionary divergence [1–4].
The differences in amino acid composition among different tissues can lead to large differences in trophic discrimination .
For more information on the current perspective, which is the same as the historical perspective, see:
…speciation of rorqual evolution occurred under gene flow, which is best depicted by evolutionary networks. Especially in marine environments, sympatric speciation might be common; our results raise questions about how genetic divergence can be established.
Large baleen whales in the Balaenopteridae family (commonly known as rorqual whales) have undergone sympatric speciation — speciation without clear geographic barriers between them — despite ongoing hybridization…
See also: May, 2015 Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin
The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…
See also: August, 2015 Eibi Nevo: Evolution, Let’s Get It Right, It’s the “Basis of Everything”
Viruses are the dynamo of change that we see in the modern genome. . . .
Cytosis_Booklet_Science.pdf (63 KB) (Log in or Register [for free] to download.) The “Science Behind the Game” from the cell biology game “Cytosis” supports all claims that clearly link energy-dependent alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs (aka microRNAs) to biophysically constrained viral latency. Game play by ages 10+ establishes the requirement for viral latency in the context of ecological variation and ecological adaptation outside the context of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense. Simply put, Darwin presciently placed his “conditions of life” into the current perspective on ecological niche construction and sympatric speciation, which exemplifies ecological adaptation in all living genera.
Cytosis is described as: A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!
The collaborative efforts of 20 serious scientists who validated the details in the game include the mention of Stephen J. Bush. See: Bush, SJ et al., (2017) Alternative splicing and the evolution of phenotypic novelty
Alternative splicing, a mechanism of post-transcriptional RNA processing whereby a single gene can encode multiple distinct transcripts, has been proposed to underlie morphological innovations in multicellular organisms. Genes with developmental functions are enriched for alternative splicing events, suggestive of a contribution of alternative splicing to developmental programmes. The role of alternative splicing as a source of transcript diversification has previously been compared to that of gene duplication, with the relationship between the two extensively explored. Alternative splicing is reduced following gene duplication with the retention of duplicate copies higher for genes which were alternatively spliced prior to duplication. Furthermore, and unlike the case for overall gene number, the proportion of alternatively spliced genes has also increased in line with the evolutionary diversification of cell types, suggesting alternative splicing may contribute to the complexity of developmental programmes. Together these observations suggest a prominent role for alternative splicing as a source of functional innovation. However, it is unknown whether the proliferation of alternative splicing events indeed reflects a functional expansion of the transcriptome or instead results from weaker selection acting on larger species, which tend to have a higher number of cell types and lower population sizes.
This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’.
See for comparison: Retraction: Oligoarginine peptides slow strand annealing and assist non-enzymatic RNA replication
Reported as: RNA Replication Paper Retracted
Szostak and others got busted for their pseudoscientific nonsense about non-enzymatic emergence by someone who understands quantized energy as information-dependent RNA-mediated top-down causation. People over age 10+ who play the cell biology game “Cytosis” may now force all biologically uninformed theorists to retract their claims, which typically have been placed into the context of mutation-driven evolution.