Excerpt: The plausibility and ecological validity of Kohl’s Laws in the context of Darwin’s ‘conditions of life’ can be compared to theories about biologically-based cause and effect in the context of species diversity. In mammals, for example, the explanatory power of a model of ecological variation and biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations became clear with companion papers published in 2013.
Origin, Evolution, and Loss of Bacterial Small RNAs (April 6, 2018)
…we examine cases of sRNA loss and describe how these may be the result of adaptive in addition to neutral processes.
The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links the food energy-dependent creation of RNA from the physiology of reproduction to all biophysically constrained energy-dependent biodiversity.
•Experiments in KO mouse models will strengthen our understanding of the physiological and pathological roles played by miRNAs and/or miRNA families within the context of immune-metabolism.
•It will be important to explore additional miRNAs that have the capacity to regulate various aspects of metabolism in immune cells.
•The knowledge acquired from engineered mouse models may pave the way for preclinical studies.
The mouse to human model of microRNA-mediated cause and effect was used as an example in this 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics, which was returned without review by the guest editors of a special issue of “Nutrients.”
This angstroms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptation links nutrient energy-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements via the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity. Species-specific pheromones link quorum-sensing in microbes from chemical ecology to the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection for codon optimality links nutritional epigenetics to the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. All biodiversity is and ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. Simply put, olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.
The plausibility and ecological validity of Kohl’s Laws in the context of Darwin’s ‘conditions of life’ can be compared to theories about biologically-based cause and effect in the context of species diversity. In mammals, for example, the explanatory power of a model of ecological variation and biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations became clear with companion papers published in 2013. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2013).
The companion papers (Grossman et al., 2013; Kamberov et al., 2013) told a new short story of ecological adaptations. In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China. Apparently, the effect of the epiallele was adaptive and it was manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In another mammal, such as the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is probably due to a nutrient-dependent epigenetic effect on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones appear to control the nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected hormone-dependent organization and hormone-activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates and in microbes as previously indicated.
The ecological adaptations, which appear to be manifested in the human population are detailed in these two reports (Grossman, et al., 2013; Kamberov, et al., 2013). The ecological adaptations are likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. If so, ecological variation probably leads to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction, which is manifested in increasing organismal complexity and species diversity. If not, there may be something as yet unknown about mutations and evolution that makes sense in the light of what is known about nutritional epigenetics and the molecular biology of species from microbes to man.
See my references and the references from Perspectives on the physiological roles of microRNAs in immune-metabolism: Where are we now?
The inflammatory response that is metabolically induced by excess nutrients is an important causative factor of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Few studies are available in the literature that shows the effect of nutrients and bioactive compounds that regulate human miRNAs in different metabolic situations. Much of the available studies are conducted in vitro and in animals. In humans, nutrition science studies may helpto identify new biomarkers and other possible mechanisms of action of certain dietary compounds, with a view to understanding how nutrients and bioactive compounds can control these small non-coding RNAs and regulate physiological mechanisms.