amino acid optimality code

The eternal significance of microRNAs (8)

Use of definitions in attempts to explain any aspect of species-specific biophysically constrained cell type differentiation and aging has been replaced by the use of model systems of biological processes.  Biological processes can be compared to so-called “evolutionary processes” to show that only biological processes need to be considered in the context of Darwin’s “conditions of life” or answers to the the question  What is Life? Schrödinger (1944). K. L. Mettinger et al. (eds.), Exosomes, Stem Cells and MicroRNA, Advances…

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The eternal significance of microRNAs (6)

Accurate representations of how mutations are linked to the ecological adaptations in viruses that kill us are required to end the stranglehold that pseudoscientists have held on medical research. The pseudoscientists and other theorists make claims about mutation-driven evolution or natural selection and evolution as if the effect of virus-driven energy theft was beneficial to species that have somehow evolved from other species. Neo-Darwinian theories will cause the death of us all. But first they will kill all the chickens.…

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Open Science: Closed to facts about microRNAs

See my 5-part series on: The tipping point? 50, 000 publications Imagine how we could accelerate innovation, stimulate economic growth and all the solutions we need to live on a healthy and sustainable planet, if we were to open up our science fully and allow a free flow of scientific knowledge.” says Kamila Markram, a neuroscientist and the CEO of Frontiers, one of the largest Open Access science publishers in the world and a leader in the Open Science movement.…

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Wikipedia refutes theistic evolution

RNA-Directed DNA Methylation Besides RNA molecules, a plethora of proteins are involved in the establishment of RdDM, like Argonautes, DNA methyltransferases, chromatin remodelling complexes and the plant-specific Polymerase IV and Polymerase V. All these act in concert to add a methyl-group at the 5′ position of cytosines. In contrast to animals, cytosines at all sequence context (CG, CHG, CHH) may get de novo methylated in plants. There is no such thing as de novo methylation. Methylation is energy-dependent. Virus-driven energy…

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Autophagy: from pre-mRNAs to microRNAs, enhancers, QTLs et al.

Nothing known to serious scientists links anything except energy-dependent changes in chirality to autophagy and biodiversity via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera. That fact forces pseudoscientists to invent new terms to confuse the biologically uninformed masses who were taught to believe in the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense of mutation-driven evolution. Autophagy in the liver: functions in health and disease  See the section: Regulation of autophagy by amino acids See for comparison: From Fertilization…

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Energy-dependent hydrogen bonds in supercoiled DNA

Chirality Check Most biological macromolecules are homochiral, and enzymes help to maintain this state of affairs; for example, checkpoints ensure that only l-amino acids are incorporated into proteins during translation. The fixation of the only achiral amino acid, glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone decapeptide protein links the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from yeasts to humans. That fact about RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry is missing from the chirality check, It also is missing from representations…

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Lawless evolution: No physics

New leader of NIH’s research watchdog faces staff revolt Partin may be looking to NSF for ideas about how to handle charges of plagiarism. Although 81% of NSF’s research misconduct findings involve plagiarism, ORI has left most plagiarism allegations to institutions to handle. Plagiarism was so widespread more than 20 years ago that the co-author of my book said to ignore it. The continuation of the problem for two decades has left pseudoscientists in charge and put the claims serious…

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Virus-driven energy theft: honeybee model

The Buzz about Honey Bee Viruses August 18, 2016 Similar to other co-evolving host—pathogen relationships, honey bee viruses have likely evolved mechanisms to overcome and/or evade bee immune responses. For example, several honey bee infecting Dicistroviruses (i.e., IAPV, KBV, and ABPV) encode a DvExNPGP motif at the 5′ terminus of their genomes, suggesting these honey bee-infecting viruses encode putative viral suppressors of RNAi similar to the Dicistroviruses Cricket paralysis virus and Drosophila C virus [52]. In addition, viruses may manipulate…

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Antithetical conclusions (5)

Something is antithetical when it is in complete and utter opposition to the character of something. For example, see: Small population size? It doesn’t have to mean that species can’t adapt to environmental change. A new study shows that small populations of species can still adapt and respond to natural selection. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon usage in the context of the physiology of reproduction is the only way known to serious scientists for a species to ecologically adapt. Theorists…

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RNAi: From magic bullet to billion dollar baby

UW-Madison technology enlisted in battle against hepatitis B DNA operates through RNA, and when RNA interference was discovered in 1998, it seemed like a magic bullet that could fight disease by specifically shutting down problematic genes. Before RNA interference was discovered pre-mRNAs were already linked to cell type differentiation in species from microbes to mammals. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to…

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  • Randomness and Divine Providence
    A Q&A on randomness and God’s providence …the main goal is to really put together a collection of scholarly studies of these issues: physicists, biologists, […]
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